Wifredo Lam

Untitled, 1968

Oil on canvas
19.6 X 23.6 in. (50 x 60 cm.)
Signed and dated lower right recto

Provenance
Private Collection Turin
Private Collection Bologna
Acquired from the above by the present owner

Literature
Lou Laurin-Lam, Eskil Lam, Wifredo Lam. Catalogue Raisonné of the Painted Work, Volume II, 1961-1982, Acatos Sa, Lausanne, 2002, p.488, no. 68.29

Sans titre, 1942

Gouache on paper laid down on board
42 x 32 in. 106.7 x 81.3 cm.)

This painting is accompanied by two certificates of authenticity: Photocertificate by the artist, Paris, 1974
Certificate by Lou Laurin-Lam no. 95-37, Paris, October 4, 1995

Provenance
Acquired from the artist by Gretl Glogau
Gift to Dr. Elizabeth Glogau Estrin, Los Angeles (sister of the above) By descent to present owner

After the Nazi invasion of France during World War II, Gretl Glogau and her partner, a communist intellectual, fled to Marseilles, where many people gathered in hopes of leaving Europe. There they befriended Wifredo Lam. The three were able to escape to Cuba, and they remained close friends. Gretl knew of Lam’s financial troubles, and purchased two paintings from him. Once she moved to New York with her husband, she gave this painting to her sister, Elizabeth Glogau Estrin, who helped the couple get settled in the city. It has remained in the family since.

Bibliography
Lou Laurin-Lam, Wifredo Lam, Catalogue Raisonné of the Painted Work, Vol. 1, 1923- 1960, Ed. Acatos, Lausanne and Paris, 1996, p. 295, no. 42.16, illus.

Untitled, 1948

Oil on linen
29 x 30.25 in. (73x 76.8 cm.)

Provenance
H.H Benitez, Saarbrücken (Deutchland).
Pyramid Galleries, Washington DC.
Galerie Albert Loeb, Paris.
Art Curial, Paris 1989
Private Collection, Miami FL.
Tresart Gallery, Coral Gables, FL.

Exhibitions
1963
Washington DC, Pyramid Galleries, WIfredo Lam: “A Decade 1942-1952, Oils, Gouaches, Drawings, Graphics”. 1993Coral Gables (United States), Gary Nader Fine Art, “Wifredo Lam: A Tribute”, Ill. (col.). 2008
Miami Art Museum. “Wifredo Lam in North America”

Certificate by Lou Laurin-Lam (91.48). Paris November 23, 1991
Catalogue Raisonne of the Painted Work, vol. 1, pg. 408 # 48.01.

Untitled, 1957

Pastel on heavy paper laid down on canvas
23 x 36 in. (58.42 x 91.44 cm)
Signed and dated « Mexico 1957 » lower right

Certificate of authenticity issued by the artist.

Provenance
Acquired from the artist
Luciano Paladini, Fort Lauderdale
Private Collection, FL. (Matt Carone)
Mary Anne Martin, New York, NY.
Private Collection, Miami, FL.
Tresart, Coral Gables, FL.

Composition Fantastique, 1970

Oil on canvas
20 x 13.75 in. (50 x 35 cm.)

Alta Mare, 1975

Bronze with brown patina
31 x 19.5 in. (78.7 x 49.5 cm.)
Executed in 1975
Signed and dated ‘LAM, 1975’ (lower right)

Artist’s proof.

Provenance
Galerie d’art Tornabuoni Arte, Switzerland.
Acquired from the above by the present owner (2006).

Literature
Exhibition catalogue, Wifredo Lam: The Changing Image- Centennial Exhibition, Yokohama, Yokohama
Museum of Art, 2002, p. 163, no. 114 (another cast illustrated in color).
This work is sold with a certificate of authenticity signed by Lou Laurin-Lam and dated 24 April 1983.

Oiseau de Feu et Oiseau de Fer, 1970

Polished brass and chrome plated brass
10.25 x 5 x 7 in. (26.1 x 12.7 x 17.8 cm.)
Ed: 9/500A, 9/500B

Untitled, 1951

Ink on paper plate
9 in. diameter
Signed, dated and inscribe-Para Titon con la amistad del pintor

Elegua, Dieu de la Porte, 1970

Bronze
13.4 x 8.5 x 4.2 in. (34.03 x 21.5 x 10.6 cm.)
Ed 5/8
Editions Tronche Paris. 

Owl, 1977

Bronze with green patina
Ed 12/50
11.4 x 4.3 x 2.3 in. 29 x 11 x 6 cm.
Signed and numbered. 

Biography

LAM CASTILLA Y MAZZOLA, Wifredo Oscar de la Concepción

Artistic name: Wifredo Lam

Signature: LAM

Born: Sagua la Grande, Las Villas, Cuba, December 8, 1902

Died: Paris, FRANCE, September 11, 1982

Art forms: PAINTING, DRAWING, ENGRAVING, CERAMICS, ILLUSTRATION

EDUCATION

1920‑1923 Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes San Alejandro, Havana, CUBA.

1923 Workshop of painter Fernando Alvarez de Sotomayor, Madrid, SPAIN.

PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY

1949 Founding Member. Asociación de Pintores y Escultores de Cuba (APEC), Havana, CUBA.

SOLO SHOWS

1923

La Sociedad, Círculo de Cultura y Recreo, Sagua la Grande, Las Villas, CUBA.

1928

Galería Vilches, Madrid, SPAIN.

1932

Lam. Círculo Artístico, León, SPAIN.

1939

[June 30‑July 14]. Galerie Pierre Loeb, Paris, FRANCE.

Drawings by Picasso/Gouaches by Wifredo Lam [November 13‑December 2]. Perls Galleries, New York, U.S.A.

1941

Lam‑Matta. The Institute of Modern Art, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

1942

[November 17‑?]. Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, U.S.A.

1944

Lam. Paintings [June 6-24]. Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, U.S.A.

1945

Lam [November 10‑December 8]. Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, U.S.A.

Lam [December 13‑31]. Galerie Pierre Loeb, Paris, FRANCE.

1946

Lam [January 9‑30]. Centre d’Art, Port‑au‑Prince, HAITI.

Exposición Lam [April 11‑19]. Lyceum, Havana, CUBA.

The Cuban Painter Wifredo Lam. 20 Drawings [November 5‑30]. The London Gallery, London, U.K.

1948

Wifredo Lam [April 20‑May 8]. Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, U.S.A.*

1949

Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, U.S.A.

1950

Lam [May 2‑20]. Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, U.S.A.

Exposición Lam. Obras recientes 1950 [October 2‑15]. Caseta del Parque Central, Havana, CUBA.*

1951

Lam y nuestro tiempo. Pinturas y dibujos. Paris 1938‑1951 [April 7‑?]. Galería Nuestro Tiempo, Havana, CUBA.*

1952

Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA) Gallery, London, U.K.

1953

Wifredo Lam [February 27‑?]. Galerie Maeght, Paris, FRANCE.

1955

Wifredo Lam [March 22‑April 2]. Faculty of Social Sciences. Universidad de La Habana, Havana, CUBA.*

Exposición Lam [May 8‑22]. Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, VENEZUELA.*

Wifredo Lam [August]. Galerie Colibri, Malmo, SWEDEN.

Instituto Venezuela‑Francia, Caracas, VENEZUELA.

1957

Obra reciente [February 24‑?]. Centro de Bellas Artes, Maracaibo, VENEZUELA.*

[October 20‑November 30]. Galerie de Cahiers d’Art, Paris, FRANCE.

1959

[November 15‑30]. Galleria Grattacielo, Milan, ITALY.

1960

[January]. University of Notre Dame Art Gallery, Indiana, U.S.A.

[March]. Il Torchio, Milan, ITALY.

Galleria del Disegno, Milan, ITALY.

1961

[February]. Galleria dell’Obelisco, Rome, ITALY.

[May‑June]. Galerie La Cour d’Ingres, Paris, FRANCE.

Galleria del Canale, Venice, ITALY.

1962

[June‑July]. Galerie D. Benador, Geneva, SWITZERLAND.

Wifredo Lam. Exposición de óleos y temperas [October 10‑November 11]. Galería de La Habana, Havana, CUBA.*

Lam: dipinti, pastelli, acqueforti [November 3‑18]. Galleria L’Annunciata, Milan, ITALY.*

Albert Loeb Gallery, New York, U.S.A.

Lam/Paalen/Herold. Galerie La Cour D’Ingres, Paris, FRANCE.

1962‑1963

Wifredo Lam. Exposición de óleos y temperas [November 17/1962‑December 1/1962]. Art Gallery, Cienfuegos/[February 26/1963‑March 24/1963]. Matanzas/Santiago de Cuba/Santa Clara, CUBA.

1963

W. Lam [April 15‑May 15]. Galerie Krugier & Cia, Geneva, SWITZERLAND.

Wifredo Lam. Aguafuertes [May 13‑June 13]. Biblioteca Nacional José Martí, Havana, CUBA.*

Exposición latinoamericana [June 1‑?]. Palazzo Collicola. Wifredo Lam Hall, Spoleto, ITALY.

Wifredo Lam. Aguafuertes [July 7‑?]. Biblioteca Provincial Julop Antonio Mella, Camagüey, CUBA.*

Lam, oeuvre graphique, eaux‑fortes et lithographie 1954‑1963. [August]. Galleria Pescetto, Albisola Capo, ITALY.

1964

[February 3‑March 2]. Galleria Notizie, Turin, ITALY.

Aguafuertes de Lam. Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, VENEZUELA.

1965

Aquafuertes de Lam. Galleria Milano, Milan, ITALY.

1966

Lam. Oleos y Aguafuertes. Sala Permanente [January 17‑?]. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA.*

Rétrospective Lam [May 18‑June 18]. Palais de Beaux‑Arts, Brussels, BELGIUM.

Wifredo Lam. Malerei, Vic Gentils, Bildhauerei [September 10‑ October 9]. Kunsthalle Basel, Basel, SWITZERLAND.*

Wifredo Lam [December 16/1966‑January 15/1967]. Kestner Gesellschaft, Hanover, F.R.G.*

Albert Loeb Galerie, Paris, FRANCE.

Galerie Andersen, Malmo, SWEDEN.

Galerie Christine Aubry, Paris, FRANCE.

1967

Wifredo Lam [January 17‑February 18]. Galerie Albert Loeb, Paris, FRANCE.

Wifredo Lam [January 26‑March 12]. Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, HOLLAND.*

Wifredo Lam [April 8‑May 7]. Moderna Muséet, Stockholm, SWEDEN.*

Wifredo Lam [May 18‑June 18]. Palais des Beaux Arts, Brussels, BELGIUM.

Wifredo Lam etchings [July]. Montreal’s School of Fine Arts, Montreal, CANADA.*

1968

Totems et Tabous (Matta, Lam, Penalba). (Individual gallery/) [April 25‑June 10]. Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, FRANCE.*

Wifredo Lam, peintures récentes [November 7‑December 3]. Villand & Galanis (Galerie), Paris, FRANCE.

Wifredo Lam. Muzeum Sztuki, Lodz, POLAND.*

1969

[January 23‑February 14]. Galleria Bergamini, Milan, ITALY.

[January 30‑February 19]. Galerie Maya, Brussels, BELGIUM.

Wifredo Lam: Oelbilder, Zeichnungen Druckgraphik [July 3‑August 16]. Frankfurter Kunstkabinett Hanna Bekker vom Rath, Frankfurt am Main, F.R.G.

Palace of the Fine Arts Friends Society, Warsaw, POLAND.

Exposition Cuba. Salle Wifredo Lam. Maison de la Culture, Grenoble, FRANCE.

1970

[January 11‑18]. Maison de la Culture, Fresnes, FRANCE.

Mostra Opera Grafica [March 3‑14]. Galleria Il Giorno, Milan, ITALY.

Wifredo Lam. Pastelli [March 11‑30]. Centro di Grafica. Levi, Milan, ITALY.*

[March 13‑April 11]. Galerie Krugier, Geneva, SWITZERLAND.

[March]. Galleria Il Salotto, Milan, ITALY.

Wifredo Lam [October 6‑24]. Gimpel Fils, London, U.K.

Exposición antológica. Galleria Schubert, Milan, ITALY.

La Consultation de l’Oracle. Galleria Arte Borgogna, Milan, ITALY.

1971

Gimpel Gallery, [New York, U.S.A.]

Baukunst, Cologne, F.R.G.

Gimpel‑Hannover Galerie, Zurich, SWITZERLAND.

Visible‑Invisible. Levi Art Center, Milan, ITALY.

1972

36a. Biennale di Venezia (personal hall) [June-October 11]. Istituto Italo‑Latinoamericano, Venice, ITALY.

Wifredo Lam. Oevres de 1940 a 1950. Galerie Albert Loeb, Paris, FRANCE.

1973

Wifredo Lam [May 9‑23]. Galleria Angolare, Milan, ITALY.*

1974

Eaux‑fortes, aquatintes, lithographies. Galleria Sanmichele, Savona, ITALY.

Galerie Zwarter Panter, Antwerp, BELGIUM.

Pleniluna. Galerie A.H. Grafik, Stockholm, SWEDEN.

En Hommage a Pierre Loeb. W. Lam oeuvres de 1938/1946. Galerie Albert Loeb, Paris, FRANCE.

Exposición y firma del libro “Wifredo Lam.” Galerie La Cour D’Ingres, Paris, FRANCE.

Pastel et oeuvre graphique. Delta International Art Center, Rome, ITALY.

1975

Cerámicas, aguafuertes, litografías [August]. Ceramics Museum, Albisola Mare, ITALY.

Galleria d’Arte, Rome, ITALY.

La opere ceramiche di Wifredo Lam. Santerno Ceramica, Bologna, ITALY.

Galerie Borjeson, Malmo, SWEDEN.

1976

Lam. Une livre‑une exposition [May 6‑?]. Galerie Albert Loeb, Paris, FRANCE.

Wifredo Lam [May‑June]. Galerie La Cour D’Ingres, Paris, FRANCE.

[Wifredo Lam] [November 18‑?]. Galeria Joan Prats, Barcelona, SPAIN.

1977

Wifredo Lam. Litografías 1973‑1976. Libros [June 8‑?]. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA.

1978

Pinturas. Wifredo Lam [June]. Studio Lleonart, Madrid, SPAIN.

Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico City, MEXICO.

1979

Wifredo Lam [October 5‑December 15]. Centre Artcurial, Paris, FRANCE.

1980

Wifredo Lam. Lithographs and Etchings [July 11‑August 1]. Opus Art Studios Inc., Coral Gables, Florida, U.S.A.*

1981

Wifredo Lam. Litografías. Galería Habana, Havana, CUBA.

Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, U.S.A.

1982

Homenaje a Wifredo Lam. Museo Español de Arte Contemporáneo, Madrid, SPAIN.

1983

Homenaje a Wifredo Lam [March 23‑May 22]. Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, FRANCE.

Homenaje a Wifredo Lam. Musée Ixells, Brussels, BELGIUM.

1984

Galerie F. Boulaika, Paris, FRANCE.

1985

Lam. Selections of color etchings and litographs. Gemini Antiques and Fine Arts, Hialeah, Florida, U.S.A.

Wifredo Lam 1902‑1982. Galería Krzysztofory, Krakow, POLAND.*

1986

[January]. (Central House of the Painters’ Association), Moscow, U.S.S.R.

Wifredo Lam. Exposición documental [April 23‑May 3]. Centoira Galería de Arte, Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA.*

[October]. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA.

Wifredo Lam. Pintura y obra gráfica. 1938‑1976 [November 30/1986‑ January 18/1987]. Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, VENEZUELA.*

Museo Nacional de Artes Plásticas, Montevideo, URUGUAY.

1987

Lam [January 14‑February 21]. Galerie Maeght Lelong, Paris, FRANCE.

Aguafuertes y litografías de Wifredo Lam. Art Gallery of the Non-Alligned Countries, Belgrade, YUGOSLAVIA.

Wifredo Lam Peintures 1965‑1976. Galerie Maeght Lelong, Zurich, SWITZERLAND.

1988

Wifredo Lam [July 1‑September 4]. Kunstsammlung Nordrhein‑Westfalen, Düsseldorf, F.R.G.*

Assonanze: Arte tribale, Wifredo Lam, Sebastian Matta [September 30‑October 31]. Galleria di Porta Ticinese, Milan, ITALY.

Wifredo Lam: 1938 to 1950 [October 8‑November 21]. Galerie Albert Loeb, Paris, FRANCE.

Wifredo Lam [November 19/1988‑January 8/1989]. Kuntsverein, Hamburg, F.R.G.

Galerie K., Paris, FRANCE.

1989

Maison de l’Amérique Latine, Paris, FRANCE.

1990

Wifredo Lam. Paintings, 1938-1969 [November 15‑December 22]. Galerie Lelong, New York, U.S.A.

Museo Rayo, Roldanillo, COLOMBIA.

1990/1991

Wifredo Lam. Galerie Lelong, Paris, FRANCE.

1991

Wifredo Lam desconocido. Cuarta Bienal de La Habana [November 18‑?]. Latin American Gallery, Casa de las Américas, Havana, CUBA.*

1992

Wifredo Lam, obras desde 1938 hasta 1975: de regreso al Caribe. [February 14‑April 30]. Arsenal de la Puntilla, San Juan, PUERTO RICO.*

Wifredo Lam. Obra sobre papel [June‑October]. Centro Cultural/Arte Contemporáneo, A.C., Mexico City, MEXICO.*

Wifredo Lam: A retrospective of works on paper [September 18‑December 20]. Americas Society Art Gallery, New York, U.S.A.*

Wifredo Lam [September 29‑December 14]. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, SPAIN.*

[Wifredo Lam. Engravings]. [October] (Fine Arts Central Academy), Beijing, CHINA.

Wifredo Lam. Works on Paper. 1940‑1975 [November‑December]. Galerie Lelong, New York, U.S.A.

[1992]

[Works by Wifredo Lam from Lydia Cabrera’s collection donated to the Lowe Art Museum, University of Miami]. Elite Fine Art, Coral Gables, Florida, U.S.A.

1993

Wifredo Lam [January 21‑March 21]. Fundació Joan Miró. Parc de Montjuïc, Barcelona, SPAIN.*

Wifredo Lam: una retrospectiva de obras sobre papel [January 21‑March 28]. Fundació La Caixa, Centre Cultural, Barcelona, SPAIN.*

Wifredo Lam [April‑May]. Gary Nader Fine Art, Coral Gables, Florida, U.S.A.

Wifredo Lam, grafik [August 26‑October 3]. Nationalmuseum Stockholm, Stockholm, SWEDEN.

1994

Wifredo Lam y la aventura del grabado [September‑October]. Museo Provincial de Bellas Artes Emiliano Guiñazu, Casa Fader, Mendoza, ARGENTINA.*

Lam y Matta [October 21‑?]. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA.

SELECTED GROUP SHOWS

1922

Salón de Bellas Artes [April‑May]. Asociación de Pintores y Escultores, Havana, CUBA.

1924

Salón de Bellas Artes [February‑March]. Asociación de Pintores y Escultores, Havana, CUBA.

1926

Exposición de pintura. Cuenca, SPAIN.

1931

Federación Ibérica de Artistas Pintores [Summer]. Museo de Arte Moderno, Madrid, SPAIN.

1940

Art Représentatif de Notre Temps [January 9‑?]. Galerie Mai, Paris, FRANCE.

Gouache [?‑November 30]. Perls Galleries, New York, U.S.A.

1942

First Papers of Surrealism [October 14‑November 7]. New York, U.S.A.

1944

Primer Salón Vicente Escobar [January 30‑?]. Salones del Frente Nacional Antifascista, Acera del Louvre, Havana, CUBA.*

1945

6éme Exposition du Centre d’Art. Les Peintres Modernes Cubains [January 18‑February 4]. Centre d’Art, Port‑au‑Prince, HAITI.*

Segundo Salón Vicente Escobar [January 31‑February 12]. Salones del Frente Nacional Antifascista, Acera del Louvre, Havana, CUBA.*

(Painting collection of the Cuban Legation in Moscow.) [March]. Moscow, U.S.S.R.*

1946

Paintings from Paris [May]. Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, U.S.A.

Exposición de artistas cubanos en la U.S.S.R. Pintura y escultura [May 13‑20]. Lyceum, Havana, CUBA.*

Exposición de pintura cubana moderna [June]. Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, MEXICO.*

Les Peintres de Paris. Sala Española, UNESCO, Paris, FRANCE.

5 Grandes pintores: Picasso, Matisse, Miró, Lam, Matta. Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.

1947

Paintings and Drawings of Latin America [April 21‑May 10]. Knoedler Galleries, New York, U.S.A.*

Blood Flames 1947. Hugo Gallery, New York, U.S.A.

Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme. Galerie Maeght, Paris, FRANCE.

Large Scale Modern Paintings [April]. Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.

1948

Exposition de Peintures et Sculptures Contemporaines [June 27-September 30]. Palais de Papes, Ville d’Avignon, FRANCE.

Arte cubano contemporáneo [December 25/1948‑January 2/1949]. Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Tegucigalpa, HONDURAS.*

Forty Years of Modern Art 1907‑1947. A Selection from British Collections. The Institute of Contemporary Art, London, U.K.

Mezinarodni Surrealismus. Sbornik, Prague, CZECHOSLOVAKIA.

40 000 Years of Modern Art: A Comparison of Primitive and Modern. The Institute of Contemporary Art, London, U.K.

1949

Pintura. Escultura. APEC [July 15‑31]. Lyceum, Havana, CUBA.*

7 Kubanska Malare [October 29‑November 27]. Liljevachs Kunsthall, Stockholm, SWEDEN.*

1950

An Exhibition of Cuban Paintings [January 28‑February 2]. The Woman’s Club of Havana, Havana, CUBA.*

XX Century Young Masters [April 24‑May 20]. Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, U.S.A.

1951

Art cubain contemporain [February 28‑March]. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, FRANCE.*

V Salón Nacional de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado [July‑August]. Centro Asturiano de La Habana, Havana, CUBA.*

1952

Obras maestras del siglo XX [May‑July]. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, FRANCE.

Imaginisterna. Malmo, SWEDEN.

1953

Pittsburgh International Exhibition [February]. Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Pintura, escultura, cerámica [July 18‑August 2]. Retiro Odontológico, Havana, CUBA.*

8° Premio Lissone Internazionale [September 17‑18]. ITALY.

Surréalisme. Galerie a l’Etoile Scellée, Paris, FRANCE.

1954

Salon de Mai. Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, FRANCE.

Bellmer/Brauner/Dalí/Ernst/Herold/Lam/Picabia/Man Ray [December 4/ 1954 – January 15/1955]. Galerie Le Soleil dans la Tête, Paris, FRANCE.

1955

20th Century Painting and Sculpture. Cantor and Witzinger Collections [March 20‑April 17]. Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A.

Sala permanente de artes plásticas de Cuba [July 22‑?]. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA.*

1956

Gulf‑Caribbean Art Exhibition [April 4‑May 6]. The Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, Texas/The Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, Texas/The Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, Massachusetts/The Munson Williams‑Proctor Institute, Utica, New York/The Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania/The Colorado Springs Fine Art Center, Colorado, U.S.A.

Segundo Festival de Invierno. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Santiago de Chile, CHILE.

1957

IV Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna de Sâo Paulo [September-December]. Parque Ibirapuera, Sâo Paulo, BRAZIL.

Collection Urvater. Musée de Beaux Arts, Liege/Museum Krolle‑Müller, Otterlo, BELGIUM.

1958

Cinquante ans d’art moderne. Weltausstellung, Brussels, BELGIUM.

1959

The Unites States Collect Pan American Art [July 7‑September]. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Exposición pintura contemporánea cubana [September 12‑22]. Universidad de Santo Tomás de Villanueva, Havana, CUBA.*

Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme. Galerie Cordier, Paris, FRANCE.

Documenta II. Kassel, F.R.G.

L’Ecole de Paris dans les Collections Belges. Musée d’Art Moderne, Paris, FRANCE.

Pittsburgh International Exhibition of Contemporary Paintings and Sculpture. Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Salon Comparaisons [April 11-May 4]. Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, FRANCE.

1960

Pintura contemporánea cubana [May 29‑?]. Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, MEXICO/[July 10‑?]. Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, VENEZUELA/[August 22‑?]. Facultad de Arquitectura, Montevideo, URUGUAY/[September]. Museo de Bellas Artes, Sâo Paulo, BRAZIL.

Salon Comparaison. Musée d’Art Moderne, Paris, FRANCE.

Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme. “Eros.” Galerie Daniel Cordier, Paris, FRANCE.

Surrealist Instructions in the Enchanters. Domain. D’Arcy Gallery, New York, U.S.A.

1961

Grupo Phases [May 2‑14]. Galleria Schwartz, Milan, ITALY.

Exposición de Pintura, Grabado y Cerámica. Primer Congreso Nacional de Escritores y Artistas Cubanos [August 18‑22]. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA.*

1962

International Prints [April‑May]. Cincinnati Art Museum of International Prints, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A.

Exposition d’Art Latino‑Americain á Paris [August 2‑October 4]. Musée National d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, FRANCE.*

1963

1913‑1963 Cincuentenario del Museo Nacional [February 23‑May 7]. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA.*

V Festival della Cerámica [July 20‑?]. Villa Faraggiana, Albisola Mare, ITALY.

VII Bienal de Sâo Paulo [September‑December]. Parque Ibirapuera, Sâo Paulo, BRAZIL.*

Idole und Dämonen. Museum des XX Jahrhunderts, Vienna, AUSTRIA.

Paintings from the Museum of Modern Art, New York [December 17/1963‑March 1/1964]. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

1963/1970

Pittsburgh International Art Exhibition. Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

1964

Peintres Cubains résidents en France, exposant quelques unes de leurs oeuvres [October 21-27]. Le Ranelagh, Cinéma d’Art et d’Essai, Vignes, Paris, FRANCE.

Peintres Surrealistes Cubains [December 4-16]. Galerie Maya, Brussels, BELGIUM.*

8 Pittori Surrealisti. Galleria L’Annunciata, Milan, ITALY.

Documenta III. Kassel, F.R.G.

Modern Paintings and Sculpture in Washington Collections. The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Paintings from The Museum of Modern Art of New York. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

1965

Artistes Latino‑Americains de Paris [June]. Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, FRANCE.

Groupe 1965 (Petite Salle Lam). Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, FRANCE.

La XI Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme. Galerie L’Oeil (L’Ecart absolu), Paris, FRANCE.

1966

Art of Latin America since Independence [January 27‑March 13]. Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut/[April 17‑May 15]. University of Texas Art Museum, Houston, Texas/[July 2‑August 7]. San Francisco Museum of Art, San Francisco, California/[August 27‑September 30]. La Jolla Museum of Art, La Jolla, California*/[October 29‑November 27]. Isaac Delgado Museum of Art, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.*

1967

XXIIIe. Salon de Mai [April 29‑May 21]. Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, FRANCE.*

22 Peintres d’une figuration autre [June 29‑?]. Galerie de la Rive Gauche, Paris, FRANCE.

Salón de Mayo [July 30‑August]. Pabellón Cuba, Havana, CUBA.*

Expo’67. Pabellón Cubano, Montreal, CANADA.

La pittura moderna straniera nelle collezioni private italiane. Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna, Turin, ITALY.

Section Francaise de l’Exposition Universelle. Montreal, CANADA.

VII Biennale d’Arte Contemporaneo. Omaggio Lam. Rassegna di Pintura e Grafica. Benedetto del Tronto, ITALY.

1968

Panorama del arte en Cuba [January]. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA.*

Maestros cubanos [January 20‑February 18]. Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, MEXICO.*

Le Principe de Plaisir [January‑May]. Bratislava/Brno/Prague, CZECHOSLOVAKIA.

Le Muse Inquietanti. Maestri del Surrealismo. Festival Tresors du Surrealismo. Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna, Turin, ITALY.

Painting in France. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C./The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York/The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts/The Art Institute, Chicago, Illinois/M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

1969

El grabado internacional siglos XVIII, XIX y siglo XX [March-May]. Museo Universitario de Ciencias y Arte, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City, MEXICO.*

Contemporary Art Dialogue between the East and the West [June‑July]. The National Museum of Art, Tokyo, JAPAN.

Latin American Paintings from the Collection of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum [July 2‑September 14]. Art Gallery/Center for Inter‑American Relations, New York, U.S.A.*

Surrealism and Their Heritage by William S. Rubru. Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.

Twentieth Century Art from the Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller Collection. Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.

Dada et Surréalisme. Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.

1970

1era. Bienal de San Juan del Grabado Latinoamericano [January]. Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña, San Juan, PUERTO RICO.*

Le Bilan des Acquisitions [March]. Centre National d’Art Contemporain, Paris, FRANCE.

Surrealism [March 6‑April 12]. Moderna Muséet, Stockholm, SWEDEN.

Grands et Jeunes d’Aujourd’hui [April]. Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, FRANCE.

Huitiéme Biennale de Menton [July 3-September 15]. Palais de l’Europe, Menton, FRANCE.

Hommage á Christian et Yvonne Zervos. Galerie Nationale d’Expositions du Grand Palais, Paris, FRANCE.

1971

Latin Amerika Skandinavia (Latin American Art in Scandinavia) [January 16-February 7]. Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, NORWAY/[March 11-28]. Charlottenlung, NORWAY/[April]. Lunds Konsthallen, Lund, SWEDEN/[June-July]. Konsthallen, Gothenburg, SWEDEN/Gensthofte Radhus, Venner, DENMARK.

Aspects de l’art cubain [September 21‑October 5]. Galerie de Seine, Paris, FRANCE.*

1972

Looking South: Latin American Art in New York Collections [May 16‑July 28]. Center for Inter‑American Relations, New York, U.S.A.*

36a. Esposizione Biennale Internazionale d’Arte Venezia [Giugno 11‑Ottobre 1]. Padiglione Centrale, Sala 36, Venice, ITALY.

Le Surréalisme. Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, FRANCE.

1973

Tropic of Cancer. Tropic of Capricorn. Contemporary Latin American Art [February 21‑March 25]. University Art Gallery, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Massachusetts, U.S.A.*

Surrealistas del Nuevo Mundo [April 26‑May 19]. Galería Aele, Madrid, SPAIN.*

1974

Art of the Americas in Washington Private Collections. Tribute to the Arts of the Americas [March 15‑April 17]. [OAS Headquarters], Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Grabados latinoamericanos del Museo de Arte Moderno, Nueva York. The Center for Inter‑American Relations, New York, U.S.A.*

Hommage à Pierre Loeb. Galerie Albert Loeb, Paris, FRANCE.

Lam, Matta, Brauner. Galerie 22, Paris, FRANCE.

Museum of Modern Art of Latin America. Selections from the Permanent Collection. Museum of Modern Art of Latin America, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.*

1975

Panorama del arte cubano de la Colonia a nuestros días [April 16‑?]. Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico City, MEXICO.*

1976

Creadores latinoamericanos contemporáneos [October‑November]. Museo de Arte Moderno, Bosque de Chapultepec, Mexico City, MEXICO.*

1977

50 Años de la Revista de Avance [October 5‑?]. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA.*

Los dioses como los vemos [November‑December]. Museo de Ciencias, Caracas, VENEZUELA.*

Cuba Peintres d’Aujourd’hui [November 18/1977‑January 15/1978]. Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, FRANCE.*

1978

Pintura y gráfica cubanas [April 5-?]. Museo Español de Arte Contemporáneo, Madrid/[May 2-31]. Fundació Joan Miró, Centre d’Estudis d’Art Contemporany, Parc de Montjuic, Barcelona, SPAIN.*

1980

Two Centuries of Cuban Art: 1759‑1959. John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, Florida*/Museum of Arts and Sciences, Daytona Beach, Florida, U.S.A.*

1981

IV Bienal Americana de Artes Gráficas. Museo de Arte Moderno La Tertulia, Cali, COLOMBIA.*

1982

Cuban Art: A Retrospective 1930‑1980 [January‑May]. The Signs Gallery, New York, U.S.A.*/[May‑June]. Sala Arteconsult. Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Panama City, PANAMA.*

Ritual and Myth: A Survey of African American Art [June 20‑November 1]. The Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, U.S.A.

1983

Per la Libertá. Mostra Internazional di Pittura in solidaritá con i prigionieri polítici dell’ Uruguay [April 7‑24]. Fiera del Mare, Genova, ITALY.*

100 Artistes de L’Amerique Latine [September 20‑October 30]. Maison de la Culture d’Amiens, Amiens, FRANCE.*

1985

Art in Washington and its Afro‑American Presence: 1940‑1970 [April 2‑May 11]. Washington Project for the Arts, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

18a. Bienal de Sâo Paulo (Special Hall) [October 4‑December 15]. Parque Ibirapuera, Sâo Paulo, BRAZIL.

1987

The First America Selections from the Nancy Sayles Day Collection of Latin American Art [January 13‑April 5]. Americas Society/Center for Inter‑American Relations, New York*/[June 7‑July 31]. El Paso Museum of Art, El Paso, Texas*/[September 11‑October 25]. Boston University Art Gallery, Boston, Massachusetts*/[November 13‑December 20]. University Gallery, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.*

Latin American Treasures from Miami Private Collections [October 8‑November 8]. Center for the Fine Arts, Miami, Florida, U.S.A.*

Foire d’Art Internationale 20ème Siècle (October 17-25) Lineart, Gante, BELGIUM.

1987-1988

Art of the Fantastic: Latin America, 1920-1987 [June 28‑September 13]. Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, Indiana*/[October 10‑December 6]. The Queens Museum, Flushing, New York*/[January 15‑March 4/1988]. Center for the Fine Arts, Miami, Florida, U.S.A.*/[March 25‑May 22/1988]. Centro Cultural/Arte Contemporáneo A.C., Mexico City, MEXICO.*

1988

Autour d’Edouard Glissant [July]. Galerie du Dragon, Paris, FRANCE.*

1988-1990

El espíritu latinoamericano: arte y artistas en los Estados Unidos. 1920‑1970 [September 29/1988‑January 29/1989]. The Bronx Museum of Art, New York*/[February 27‑April 23/1989]. El Paso Museum of Art, California*/[May 22‑July 16/1989]. San Diego Museum of Art, San Diego, California, U.S.A.*/[August 14‑October 8/1989]. Centro de Cultura Puertorriqueña, San Juan, PUERTO RICO*/[January 28‑March 31/1990]. Center for the Arts, Vero Beach, Florida, U.S.A.*

1989

Drawings: Seven Cuban Masters [January 20‑February 26]. Museo Cubano de Arte y Cultura, Miami, Florida, U.S.A.*

Art in Latin America: The Modern Era, 1820-1980 [May 16‑August 6]. Hayward Gallery, London, U.K.*/[September 16‑November 19]. Nationalmuseum, Moderna Muséet, Stockholm, SWEDEN.*/[December 19/1989‑ March 11/1990]. Palacio de Velázquez, Madrid, SPAIN.*

Colección Amigos del Centro de Arte Reina Sofía [November 15-December 31]. Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, SPAIN.

La Habana en Madrid. Centro Cultural de la Villa de Madrid, Madrid, SPAIN.*

1990

Figuración fabulación: 75 años de pintura en América Latina, 1914-1989 [March 4-May 6]. Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, VENEZUELA.

Peinture Contemporaine de Cuba [July 17-?]. Bibliothèque Schoelcher, Fort-de-France, Martinique, FRANCE.*

Colección Latinoamericana. Museo de Bellas Artes de Caracas [November/1990‑February/1991]. Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango, Bogota, COLOMBIA.

1991

Art Miami’91. International Art Exposition [January 10-13]. Miami Beach Convention Center, Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.A.* [Represented by Brewster Gallery, New York/Der Brücke‑Arte Internacional, Buenos Aires/Fine Art World, Florida/M. Gutiérrez Fine Arts, Florida/Martin’s Art Gallery, Florida/Virginia Miller Gallery, Florida/Gary Nader Fine Arts, Florida/Leila Taghinia-Milani Gallery, New York.]

1992

Voces de ultramar. Arte en América Latina y Canarias: 1910‑1960 [September 7‑November 8]. Centro Atlántico de Arte Moderno, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria/[December 10/1992‑January 31/1993]. Casa de América, Madrid, SPAIN.*

Wifredo Lam and His Contemporaries 1938‑1952 [December 6/1992‑April 11/1993]. The Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, U.S.A.*

1992-1993

Latin American Artists of the Twentieth Century. Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Sevilla, SPAIN/Josef Haubrish Kunsthalle, Cologne, GERMANY /Centre d’Art et Culture George Pompidou, Paris, FRANCE/[June 6-September 7/1993]. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.*

1993

Art Miami’93. International Art Exposition [January]. Miami Beach Convention Center, Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.A.

Lateinamerika und der Surrealismus [May 22-June 18]. Museum Bochum, Bochum, GERMANY.*

Cuban Artists of the Twentieth Century [October 22/1993‑January 2/1994]. Museum of Art, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, U.S.A.*

1994

Orígenes. Revista de Arte y Literatura… las flechas de su propia estela [June]. Galería Latinoamericana, Casa de las Américas, Havana, CUBA.*

Latin American Artists in Washington Collections/Artistas Latinoamericanos en colecciones de Washington [August 19-September 29]. Inter-American Development Bank Cultural Center, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.*

Nuevas adquisiciones [October 24‑?]. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA.

(Latin American Masterpieces: Castañeda, Lam, Morales, Matta, Rivera, Tamayo y Torres García). Mary‑Anne Martin Fine Art, New York, U.S.A.

1995

Art Miami’95. International Art Exposition [January 6‑10]. Miami Beach Convention Center, Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.A. [Represented by Fernando Quintana Gallery, Bogota, COLOMBIA.]

200 Años, 200 obras. Selección gráfica de Europa y América Colección del Instituto de Artes Gráficas de Oaxaca [March‑May]. Museo de las Artes, Guadalajara, Jalisco, MEXICO.

Painting, Drawing and Sculpture from Latin America. Selections from the Collection of the Inter-American Development Bank [June 20-August 18]. Inter-American Development Bank, Cultural Center Art Gallery, Washington, D.C./[September 5-October 15]. Salisbury State University, University Galleries, Fulton Hall, Salisbury, Maryland, U.S.A.

1995‑1997

Caribbean Visions: Contemporary Painting and Sculpture [February 21-March 21/1995]. Leonard & Bina Ellen Art Gallery, Concordia University, Montreal/[April 8-June 11/1995]. Edmonton Art Gallery, Edmonton, Alberta/[July 1-August 27/1995]. Dunlop Art Gallery, Regina, Saskatchewan, CANADA/[September 8‑November 5/1995]. Center for the Fine Arts, Miami, Florida/[January‑March/1996]. New Orleans Museum of Art, New Orleans, Louisiana/[July‑September/1996]. Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York/[1997]. Wadsworth Atheneum, Wadsworth, Ohio, U.S.A.

1996

Cuba siglo XX. Modernidad y sincretismo [April 16‑June 9]. Centro Atlántico de Arte Moderno, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria/[July 2‑September 1]. Fundació La Caixa, Palma de Mallorca/[October 8‑November 17]. Centre d’Art Santa Monica, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona, SPAIN.*

Estampas cubanas de tres siglos [July-August]. Museo Nacional de Colombia, Bogota/[August-September]. Salón Avianca, Barranquilla, COLOMBIA.*

AWARDS

1950

Scholarship for studies on development of modern art in Italy, France and the U.S.A., granted by the Cuban Government.

1951

First Prize. V Salón Nacional de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado, Centro Asturiano, Havana, CUBA.

1953

Gold Medal to Foreign Artists. 8° Premio Lissone Internazionale, ITALY.

1964

Guggenheim International Award, New York, U.S.A.

1965

Premio Marchtto, Valdano, ITALY.

1981

Order “Félix Varela” in the First Degree. State Council, Republic of Cuba.

PUBLICATIONS

LAM, Wifredo. “Delante de las vorágines.” Estudios, Havana, No.5, CUBA, 1950.

_________. “Oeuvres recentes de Wifredo Lam.” Cahiers d’Arts, Paris, FRANCE, 1951.

_________. “The presence of the Sphinxes.” Por Nada, Havana [poem], CUBA, 1953.

_________. “Tropique du cancer.” cat. Les Imaginistes Suedois. Galerie de Babylone, Paris [poem/preface], FRANCE, 1953.

_________. Coloquio con Lam. Ed. Imprenta Universidad de Havana, Havana, CUBA, 1954.

_________. “Poema para Magritte.” cat. Magritte, Obelysk Gallery, London, U.K., 1961.

_________. “L’arriere‑pensée du peintre, presentation by Elde and Vandercam.” cat. Galleria Pesceto, Albisola Mare, ITALY., 1963.

_________. “Poema per Elde Le Fou.” cat. Elde Klippans Kulturreservat, Goteborg, SWEDEN, 1966.

_________. “Descrizione di un quadro.” cat. Latin American Paintings from the Collection of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Art Gallery/Center for Inter‑American Relations, New York, U.S.A., July 2‑September 14, 1969.*

_________. Les creatures de Prometée. Jorn le son nordique. [poem], Jorn‑Cuba. Ed. Fratelli Pozzo, Turin, ITALY, 1970.

_________. Les amis. Hommage a Yvonne Zervos. Palais des Papes, Avignon, FRANCE, 1970.

_________. “Lumière. Au cri de la vigie.” Lam [by Jouffroy, Alain], Bibli Opus, Paris, FRANCE, 1972.

_________. “Pour Picasso.” L’Humanité, Paris, FRANCE, April, 1973.

_________. “La juste vision des crimes comme spectacle d’injustice… sur Goya.” Bolaffiarte, No.39, Turin, ITALY, April, 1974.

_________. “Sous le vingtieme parallele.” Argile, Paris, No.21 [illus], pp.56‑64, FRANCE., November, 1979.*

BIBLIOGRAPHY

“Arribó a Cuba el gran pintor Wifredo Lam.” Girón, Matanzas, CUBA, May 3, 1963.*

Art in America, New York, No.2, U.S.A., 1955.

“Artistas cubanos a la conquista de los espacios desvalidos de espíritu. Siete murales en el edificio de una empresa industrial.” Diario de la Marina, Havana [illus], pp.10-11, CUBA, February 11, 1951.*

Catálogo razonado de la obra pintada de Wifredo Lam 1923-1960. Editions Acato, Lausana [illus], 550 pp., SWITZERLAND, March, 1996.

La enciclopedia de Cuba. Book 5. Artes. Sociedad. Filosofía. Enciclopedia y Clásicos Cubanos, Inc., Ed. Playor, S.A., Madrid [illus], pp.172‑176, SPAIN, 1975.*

“Wifredo Lam.” Estetisk Forum, Stockholm, No.12, SWEDEN, 1967.

“Lam inéditos.” Granma, Havana, CUBA, February 21, 1991.*

“Le Surrealisme encore et toujours.” Cahier de Poesie, Paris, FRANCE, 1943.

“Llega a La Habana Wifredo Lam en su primera visita desde 1958.” El Mundo, Havana, CUBA, May 2, 1963.*

“Los mil de Lam.” Inventario, Havana, No.22, CUBA, 1952.*

Out There. Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures. Ed. The New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York. Edited by Russell Ferguson, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh‑ha, Cornel West; Foreword by Marcia Tucker, Vol. 4 [illus], U.S.A., 1990.*

“Personale di Lam en Albisola Mare.” Il Giorno, Milan, ITALY, August 24, 1975.

“Saludo a Wifredo Lam.” El Mundo, Havana, CUBA, 1965.

The Forerunners of the Avant‑Garde. Surrealism between the Two Wars. International Anthology of Contemporary Engraving, Ed. Galleria Schwarz, Milan, Vol.II [illustrated with original engravings], ITALY, 1965.

“The Strange and Weird Jungle of Wifredo Lam.” Time Magazine, New York, U.S.A., 1947.

“Una amplia visión de la obra de Wifredo Lam.” Correo del Arte Hispano, Madrid, No.6 [illus], unpaginated, SPAIN., 1993.

“Wifredo Lam.” Pueblo y Cultura, Havana, No.12 [illus], p.4, CUBA, 1963.*

“Wifredo Lam.” Arte Mercato, No.4, ITALY, 1973.

“Wifredo Lam.” Nuestro Tiempo, Havana, Vol. IV, No.16, CUBA, [19‑ ].

“Wifredo Lam.” Cahiers d’Art XIV, Paris, pp.179‑181, FRANCE, 1939.

“Wifredo Lam,” Nuestro Tiempo, Havana, Vol. IV, No.16, CUBA, 1957.

“Wifredo Lam.” Pintores cubanos, Ediciones R, Havana [texts by Oscar González Hurtado/Edmundo Desnoes] [illus], pp.19‑22/66‑77, CUBA, 1962.*

A.A.K. “Wifredo Lam ou la magie.” Tribune de Genève, Geneva, SWITZERLAND, 1962.

ABADIE, Daniel. “L’âme de la Jungle.” cat. Galerie F. Boulaika, Paris, FRANCE, 1984.

ADELANTADO MATEU, Eulalia. “Wifredo Lam: Años de formación en España.” Revolución y Cultura, Havana, No.7, [illus], pp.34‑39, CUBA, 1990.*

AGUIRRE, Mirta. “Wifredo Lam, hijo predilecto.” Hoy, Havana, Vol. VIII, No.108, p.6, CUBA, May 8, 1945.

_________. “Antillas en Wifredo Lam.” Hoy, Havana, Vol. IX, No.90, p.10, CUBA, April 14, 1946.

ALFREDSSON, Hans. “Cubadjungel in lund.” Kvallspostem, Malmo, SWEDEN, 1955.

ALONSO, Alejandro G. “Lam, hazaña y médula.” Juventud Rebelde, Havana, CUBA, September 13, 1982.*

_________. “Vuelo de la imaginación y necesidad comunicativa.” Juventud Rebelde, Havana, CUBA, September 21, 1982.*

ALVAREZ BARAGAÑO, José. “Lam. Gran señor de la pintura.” Seminario, Havana, CUBA, 1954.

_________. “Lam. En la pintura.” Espacio, Havana, CUBA, 1954.

_________. Wifredo Lam. Ed. Sociedad Colombista Panamericana, Havana, [illus], 70 pp., CUBA, 1958.*

ALVAREZ BRAVO, Armando. “Los Lam de Lydia Cabrera.” El Nuevo Herald, Miami, Florida [illus], p.1E/3E, U.S.A., [1992].*

ARCINIEGAS, Germán. “El pintor que parece una novela.” Blanco y Negro, Madrid, No.3326, SPAIN, 1976.

ARJONA, Marta. “Lam, uno de los más queridos exponentes del arte cubano.” Granma, Havana, p.25, CUBA, September 13, 1982.*

AUDOIN, Philippe. Les Surrealistes. Ed. du Seuil, Paris, FRANCE, 1973.

AYLLON, José. “Lam, un pintor predestinado.” cat. Exposición antológica. Homenaje a Wifredo Lam 1902‑1982, Museo Español de Arte Contemporáneo, Madrid, SPAIN, 1982.*

BADDELEY, Oriana/FRASE, Valerie. Drawing the Line. Art and Cultural Identity in Contemporary Latin America. Ed. Verso, London/New York [illus], 1989.

BAQUERO, Gastón. “Lam in Memoriam.” El Miami Herald, Miami, Florida, U.S.A., November 22, 1982.*

BAROTTE, René. Lam, peintre des metamorphoses. Paris‑Press, Paris, FRANCE, 1953.

BARR Jr., Alfred H. “Una Carta.” Gaceta del Caribe, Havana, CUBA, August, 1944.

BAYON, Damián Carlos. Aventura plástica de Hispanoamérica. Ed. Fondo de Cultura Económica, Mexico City [illus], MEXICO, 1974.*

BELLINI, Studio. “Wifredo Lam.” Panorama, Milan, No.6, ITALY, November-December, 1969.

BESSON, George. “Lam.” Le Soir, Paris, FRANCE, 1939.

_________. “Le Marchand de Couleur Wifredo Lam.” Le Soir, Paris, FRANCE, 1939.

BLANC, Giulio V. “That Art Scene. Lam comes to Miami.” The Miami Reporter, Miami, Florida, Vol.1, No.2, p.15, U.S.A., June, 1987.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam.” Art Nexus, Bogota, No.8 [illus], COLOMBIA, April, 1993.

BLUM, Peter. “La Giungla di Wifredo Lam.” Prospetive d’Arte, Vol. 1, No.3, ITALY, August, 1975.

BORRAS, María Lluïsa. “Lam en España.” cat. Wifredo Lam, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, pp.43‑47, SPAIN, September 29‑December 14, 1992.*

BOUDAILLE, Georges. “Historie d’une exposition.” Les Arts, Paris, FRANCE, 1968.

BRETON, André. “La nuit en Haïti.” Preface a l’Exposition Lam. cat. Lam. Centre d’Art, Port‑au‑Prince, HAITI, January 9‑30, 1946.

_________. “L’adieu a Archile Gorky.” Neon, Paris, FRANCE, 1947.

_________. “Imaginative work. The Wifredo Lam show at the Pierre Matisse Gallery.” The New York World Telegram, New York, U.S.A., 1947.

_________. “Disturbing in a Tropical Forest.” The New York Sun, New York, U.S.A., 1947.

_________. Le surréalisme et la peinture. Nouvelle édition rev. et. corr., 1928‑1965, Gallimard [illus], 427 pp., FRANCE, [1965].

BREUNING, Margaret. “Surprises its Critics.” The Art Digest, New York, U.S.A., 1945.

_________. “Lam’s Magical Incantations and Rituals.” The Art Digest, New York, U.S.A., 1945.

_________. “The Demonic Lam.” The New Magazine of Art, New York, Vol.XXIV, U.S.A., 1950.

BROOK, Federico. cat. 36a. Esposizione Biennale Internazionale d’Arte Venezia, Padiglione Centrale. Sala 36. Mostra organizzata dall’Istituto Italo‑Latinoamericano di Rome, Venice, ITALY, June 11-October 1/1972.*

BUENO, Salvador. “Lam.” Bohemia, Havana [illus], pp.7‑9/66, CUBA, May 24, 1963.*

BULIT, Ilse. “Las cenizas de Wifredo Lam.” Bohemia, Havana, pp.48‑49, CUBA, December 10, 1982.*

BURROWS, Carlyle. “Art of the Week: Four of a Modern Kind.” New York Tribune, New York, U.S.A., 1947.

_________. “Lam Leans Heavily on Primitive Ideas.” New York Herald Tribune, New York, U.S.A., 1947.

CABRERA, Lydia. “Un gran pintor.” Diario de la Marina, Havana, p.2, CUBA, May 17, 1942.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam «los perros ladran, la caravana pasa».” Diario de la Marina, Havana, CUBA, January 30, 1944.

_________. cat. Exposición Lam, [comments], Lyceum, Havana [illus], 15 pp., CUBA, April 11‑19, 1946.

CALAS, Nicolás. “Magic Icons.” Horizon, Vol XIV, London, U.K., 1946.

_________. “Wifredo Lam.” cat. Blood Flames [group show], Hugo Gallery, New York, U.S.A., 1947.

CARBO, Elsie. “Restituídas al Museo de Bellas Artes las obras del pintor Wifredo Lam.” Juventud Rebelde, Havana, pp.1‑4, CUBA, December 30, 1986.*

CARLILE, Cristina. “Wifredo Lam. Dancing in the Dark.” ArtNews, New York, Summer [illus], p.153, U.S.A., 1994.

CARPENTIER, Alejo. “W. Lam en Nueva York.” Información, Havana, CUBA, June, 1944.

_________. “Reflexiones acerca de la pintura de Wifredo Lam.” Gaceta del Caribe, Havana, Vol. 1, No.5 [illus], pp.26‑27, CUBA, July, 1944.

_________. “Un pintor de América: el cubano Wifredo Lam.” El Nacional, Caracas, VENEZUELA, 1947.

_________. “Lam en Caracas.” El Nacional, Caracas, Letra y Solfa, VENEZUELA, December 24, 1953 [reproduced en Revolución y Cultura, Havana, No.135-136, CUBA, November-December, 1983*].

_________. “[Introduction].” cat. Exposición Lam, Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas [illus], 12 pp., VENEZUELA, May 8‑22, 1955.*

_________._ “Wifredo Lam triunfa en Venezuela.” Revista del Instituto Nacional de Cultura, Havana, Vol. 1, No.1, p.36, CUBA, December, 1955.

_________. “El arte de Wifredo Lam.” Havana, CUBA, [195‑].*

_________. “Wifredo Lam.” Pueblo y Cultura, Havana, No.9 [illus], p.4, CUBA, 1962.*

_________. cat. Wifredo Lam. Exposición de óleos y temperas, Galería de Havana [illus], s/p, CUBA, October 10‑November 11, 1962.*

_________. “Lam en Caracas.” cat. Lam. Oleos y aguafuertes. Sala Permanente Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA, January 17, 1966.*

CARRIERI, Raffaele. “La Foresta di Lam e una notte senza confine.” Europeo, Milan, ITALY, 1962.

CASALE, Ramón. “Wifredo Lam: cuando la magia y el rito se convierten en paradigma humano.” Batil, [illus], pp.8‑11, SPAIN, June, 1993.

CATA, Almayda. “Unas litografías de Lam.” La Gaceta de Cuba, Havana, No.159, CUBA, August, 1977.*

CATLIN, Stanton Loomis/GRIEDER, Terence. Art of Latin America since Independence. Ed. Yale University Art Gallery, XIV, [illus], 246 pp., U.S.A., 1966.

CAVALLO, L. “I Miracoli del gran fuoco de Albisola per Wifredo Lam.” Il Corriere del Pomeriggio, ITALY, August 18, 1975.

_________. “Personale di Lam e Albisola Mare.” Il Giorno, Milan, ITALY, August 24, 1975.

_________. “Obiettivo Wifredo Lam.” Il Resto del Carlino, Bologna, ITALY, August 25, 1975.

CESAIRE, Aimé. “Wifredo Lam et les Antilles.” Cahiers d’Art, No.20‑21, pp.357‑359, FRANCE, 1945‑1946.

_________. “Wifredo Lam y las Antillas.” cat. Lam. Oleos y aguafuertes. Sala Permanente, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA, January 17, 1966.*

CESAR, Antonieta. “¿Quiénes restauraron los cuadros robados?” Trabajadores, Havana, CUBA, January 10, 1987.*

CHARPIER, Jacques. Lam. Ed. Musée de Poche, Paris, FRANCE, 1960.

CHEVALIER, Denyse. “Portrait d’artiste, Wifredo Lam.” Art, Paris, FRANCE, 1946.

_________. “Les expositions à Paris. Lam.” Aujourd’hui Art et Architecture, Paris, Vol. XXXII, FRANCE, 1961.

COATES, Robert M. “Barberie design.” New Yorkers, New York, U.S.A., 1942.

COBAS AMATE, Roberto. “Wifredo Lam: los laberintos de la realidad.” cat. Wifredo Lam, obra sobre papel, Centro Cultural Arte Contemporáneo, A.C., Mexico City, pp.11‑26, MEXICO, June‑October, 1992.*

COBAS, Esteban S. “Wifredo Lam.” Galería, Santiago de Cuba, Vol. II, No.8‑9, pp.8‑10, CUBA, May‑June, 1958.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam.” Plástica, Bogota, No.14, COLOMBIA, 1959.

COLLAZO, Alberto H. “Wifredo Lam.” Arte en Colombia, Bogota, No.42, December, p.100, COLOMBIA, 1989.*

CONIL‑LACOSTE, Michel. “Sur cinq toiles de Lam.” Le Monde, Paris, FRANCE, December 8, 1972.

CORTE, Luis Miguel la. “Imagen de Wifredo Lam.” cat. Wifredo Lam. Pintura y obra gráfica. 1938-1976. Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas [illus], pp.9-18, VENEZUELA, November 30/1986-January 18/1987.*

COS-CAUSSE, Jesús. “La Leyenda de Lam.” Granma, Havana, CUBA, June 7, 1977.*

CRUT, Mario. “Wifredo Lam, exoticsk dynamitar.” Idun Vecko Journalen, Stockholm, SWEDEN, 1967.

CURZI, Lucien. Wifredo Lam. Edizione Bora, Bologna, ITALY, 1978.

DAMIAN, Carol. “Wifredo Lam.” Arte en Colombia, Bogota, No.56 [illus], pp.141‑142, COLOMBIA, September‑December, 1993.

DAVID, Catherine. “Le pays natale.” cat. Wifredo Lam, Galerie Lelong, Paris [illus], FRANCE, 1991.

_________. “Lam en nuestro siglo.” cat. Wifredo Lam. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, pp.17‑20, SPAIN, September 29‑December 14, 1992.*

_________. “The Invention of the New World: Drawings 1914‑1942.” cat. Wifredo Lam. A retrospective of works on paper, Americas Society Art Gallery, U.S.A., September 18‑December 20, 1992.

DAY, Holliday T. “Wifredo Lam 1902‑1982.” cat. Art of the Fantastic: Latin America 1920‑1987, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, Indiana [illus], pp.103‑111, U.S.A., June 28‑September 13, 1987.*

DESNOES, Edmundo. “Wifredo Lam y la forma.” Espacio, Havana, Vol. I, No.2 [illus], pp.10‑11, CUBA, March‑April, 1952.*

_________. “Lam. La cicatriz y la espuma.” Rotograbado Revolución, Havana [illus], CUBA, January, 1963.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam en Cuba.” Revolución, Havana, CUBA, May 2, 1963.*

_________. Lam: azul y negro. Cuadernos Casa de las Américas 3. Editorial Nacional de Cuba, Havana [illus], 28 pp., CUBA, 1963.*

_________. “E.D. habla de pintura.” Rotograbado de Revolución, Havana, pp.15, CUBA, May 27, 1963.*

_________. “La mujer en la pintura de Lam.” Mujeres, Havana [illus], pp.130‑131, CUBA, July, 1964.*

_________. “Lam y el Tercer Mundo.” cat. Lam. Oleos y aguafuertes. Sala Permanente, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA, January 17, 1966.*

_________. “Lam y el Tercer Mundo.” La Gaceta de Cuba, Havana, Vol. 5, No.50, CUBA, April‑May, 1966.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam. Azul y negro.” Plural, Mexico City, pp.34‑41, MEXICO, undated.*

DEULOFEU CALLE, Luis O. “Wifredo Lam, pintor de La Jungla.” Alma Mater, Havana, CUBA, May 8, 1987.*

DOLBLIN, B. F. “Exotisches in «The Kunst».” Aufbau, New York, U.S.A., 1949.

DUBUFFET, Forner. “Lam.” Plástica, Bogota, No.11, COLOMBIA, 1958.

DUEÑAS, Manuel. “Perfil plástico.” Bohemia, Havana, CUBA, July 18, 1986.*

DULZAIDES NODA, Luis. “Un brujo que en el Caribe hace y pinta leyendas negras.” Estudios. Mensuario de Cultura, Havana, Vol. I, No.1 [illus], pp.19-20, CUBA, February, 1950.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam en chancletas.” Inventario, Havana, Vol. II, No.19, CUBA, 1950.*

E.A. “Wifredo Lam.” Blanco y negro, Madrid, p.74, SPAIN, 1978.*

EHRENBURG, Ilya. “Arte cubano en Moscú.” Gaceta del Caribe, Havana, CUBA, 1944.

_________. “Arp‑Lam.” Newsweek, New York, U.S.A., 1944.

EINSTEIN, W. “Wifredo Lam expose à Paris.” New York Herald Tribune, New York, U.S.A., 1946.

_________. “Wifredo Lam ne peinte que la nuit.” France et Monde. Paris, FRANCE, 1946.

ESTEBAN, Claude. “Hijo primogénito de la tierra.” Sobre Wifredo Lam. Ponencias de la Conferencia Internacional I Bienal de Havana. Ed. Letras Cubanas, Havana, pp.81‑98, CUBA, 1986.*

FEHRLIN, Gisela. “Wifredo Lam Malerei.” Die Welt. Basel, SWITZERLAND, 1966.

FEIJOO, Samuel. “Visita al pintor Lam.” Inventario, Havana, No.17, not paginated, CUBA, 1950.*

_________. “Visiones de Lam.” Prensa Libre, Havana, CUBA, April 13, 1961.

_________. “Wifredo Lam.” Cuba, Havana, Vol. II, No.12, [illus], pp.38‑ 47, CUBA, April, 1963.*

_________. “Ojeada a Lam.” Islas, Santa Clara, Las Villas, Vol.VIII, No.1 [illus], pp.115‑133, CUBA, January‑April, 1966.*

_________. “Lam y los mitos cubanos.” Bohemia, Havana, pp.24‑25, CUBA, June 17, 1977.*

FERNANDEZ, Justino. “Carta a Wifredo Lam.” Revista de Artes, Havana, CUBA, 1950.

_________. cat. Exposición Lam. Obras recientes 1950. Central Park Cottage, Havana, CUBA, October 2‑15, 1950.*

FERNANDEZ SANTOS, Francisco. “Wifredo Lam (1902‑1982).” El Correo de la UNESCO, Paris, FRANCE, November, 1982.*

FERNANDEZ VILLA‑URRUTIA, Rafael. “En torno a la pintura de Wifredo Lam.” Revista Lyceum, Havana, Vol.VIII, No.28, pp.62‑69, CUBA, November, 1951.

FIORI, Pedro. “Lam: profeta de la jungla, de lo irracional.” Guadalimar, Madrid, SPAIN, June, 1978.

FLOREZ, Armando J. “Vuelven pinturas de W. Lam a Nueva York.” El Miami Herald, Miami, Florida, U.S.A., May 29, 1982.*

FORNET, Ambrosio. “El ciudadano Lam.” Rotograbado Revolución, Havana [illus], pp.14‑15, CUBA, May 27, 1963.*

FOUCHET, Max Pol. Wifredo Lam. Ed. Poligrafa S.A., Barcelona [illus], SPAIN, 1976.*

_________. Wifredo Lam. Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. [illus], 266 pp., U.S.A., 1976.

_________. Wifredo Lam. Ed. Weber-Poligrafa S.A., Barcelona [illus], SPAIN, 1983.*

FRANQUI, Carlos. “El retorno de Wifredo Lam.” Carteles, Havana, CUBA, 1955.

_________. “Pintará Wifredo Lam un mural para Caracas.” Diario Nacional, Havana [illus], CUBA, 1956.*

_________. cat. Lam. Oleos y aguafuertes. Sala Permanenete, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA, January 17, 1966.*

FRERE, Jacques. “Lam: Orphée Noir.” Pourquoi Pas, No.2619, Brussels, BELGIUM, 1969.

GASCH, Sebastián. Wifredo Lam à Paris. Ed. Galeria Joan Prats, Barcelona, p.189, SPAIN, 1976.

GAUDIBERT, Pierre. “Wifredo Lam, Paris, Picasso 1938‑1940.” cat. Wifredo Lam, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein‑Westfalen, Düsseldorf, pp.13‑18, F.R.G., July 2‑September 4, 1988.*

_________/LEENHARDT, Jacques. Wifredo Lam, oeuvres de Cuba. Ed. Literarie Séguier, Paris, FRANCE, 1989.

GENAUER, Emily. “Klee fancy lacks substance, Wifredo Lam, Cuba.” The New York World Telegram, New York, U.S.A., 1947.

GHIBERTI, Stefano. “Lam, di pingero fino a duecento anni.” Gente, No.35, ITALY, August 31, 1970.

_________. “Lam.” Mizue, Tokyo, No.799, JAPAN, 1971.

GIBBS, Jo. “Freudian Symbols.” The Art Digest, New York, U.S.A., 1945.

GIL PELAEZ. “Wifredo Lam. El espíritu exótico del gran pintor cubano.” Cosmópolis, Havana, [illus], pp.58‑59, CUBA, 1929.*

GLUEK, Grace. “Lam’s Demons at the Matisse.” The New York Times, New York, pp.15‑23, U.S.A., June 4, 1982.*

GOMEZ SICRE, José. Pintura cubana de hoy. Ed. María Luisa Gómez Mena, Havana, [illus], 205 pp., CUBA, 1944.*

GONZALEZ, Angel Tomás/VEIGAS ZAMORA, José. “Una pistola para el cabello blanco.” El Caimán Barbudo, Havana, No.157, [illus], pp.16‑17/26, CUBA, January, 1981.*

GONZALEZ CAMPOAMOR, Fernando (Fernando Campoamor). “Moravia y Lam.” Bohemia, Havana, [illus], pp.8‑13, CUBA, January 21, 1966.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam y su esposa Lou Lam. Visita de la Galería Tetriakov.” Novedades de Moscow (Spanish), Moscow, U.S.S.R., January, 1966.

GONZALEZ HURTADO, Oscar. “Lam.” Bohemia, Havana, pp.20‑22, CUBA, March 12, 1965.*

GORLELA, Francisco. “Wifredo Lam.” La Prensa, New York, U.S.A., 1949.

GRADA, Raffaele de. “L’artista dell ordine irrazionale.” Vitalita, Vol. XII, No.132, ITALY, October, 1973.

_________. I luoghi di Lam. Ed. Galleria Spazio Immagine, Milan, ITALY, 1981.

GRANATH, Ole. “Den osinnliga extasen.” Dagens Nyether, Stockholm, SWEDEN, 1967.

GRAND, P.M. “L’etoile de Lam.” Le Monde, Paris, FRANCE, 1953.

GRANELL, E.F. “Wifredo Lam pintor del mágico desfile antillano.” La Nación, Santo Domingo, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, 1946.

GRAU, Mariano. “Lam, el surrealismo y Cuba.” El Mundo, Havana, p.22, CUBA, November 23, 1947.

GRIENE, Graham. “Geleitwort.” cat. Wifredo Lam, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein‑ Westfalen, Düsseldorf, p.6, F.R.G., July 2‑September 4, 1988.*

GUEVARA, Ernesto (Che). “Wifredo Lam está en cualquier país de esos.” Granma, Havana [talk at the Ministry of Industries, Havana, 1965], CUBA, 1967.*

GUSTAFSON, Ingemar. “Wifredo Lam.” Salamandre, Malmo, No.3, SWEDEN, 1956.

GUTIERREZ, Fernando. “Wifredo Lam en Joan Prats.” Arte y artistas, la vanguardia española, Barcelona, SPAIN, December 11, 1976.*

HAYS, Hofmann R. “Notas sobre Wifredo Lam.” Las Moradas, Lima, Vol.II, No.718, p.164, PERU, January‑July, 1949.

HERNANDEZ, Jesús. “Era imposible imaginarlo.” Revolución y Cultura, Havana, p.52, CUBA, February, 1981.*

HERNANDEZ ARTIGAS, José. “Lam el shaman. Notas: pintura.” Unión, Havana, Vol. 2, No.7, pp.69‑76, CUBA, May‑June, 1963.*

HERNANDEZ MENESES, José. “La pintura de Wifredo Lam.” Diario de la Marina. Magazine Ilustrado. Havana, Vol.2, No.6, [illus], pp.10-11, CUBA, August 15, 1946.

HERRERA YSLA, Nelson. “Wifredo Lam.” cat. 18a. Bienal de Sâo Paulo, Sâo Paulo, pp.225‑226, BRAZIL, October 4‑Dezembro 15, 1985.*

_________. “De Cuba. Wifredo Lam.” cat. Wifredo Lam. Pintura y obra gráfica. 1938-1976, Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas [illus], pp.5-7, VENEZUELA, November 30, 1986-January 18, 1987.*

HERZBERG, Julia P. “Wifredo Lam: Interrelaciones entre el afrocubanismo y el surrealismo.” cat. Wifredo Lam, obra sobre papel, Centro Cultural Arte Contemporáneo, A.C., Mexico City, pp.49‑64, MEXICO, June‑October/1992.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam: The Return to Havana and the Afro-Cuban Heritage,” Qualifying Paper, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, New York, U.S.A., 1986.

_________. “Wifredo Lam.” Latin American Art, Scottsdale, Arizona, Vol. 2, No. 3, [illus], pp.18-24, U.S.A., Summer, 1990.*

HESS, Thomas B. “Spotlight on Lam.” ArtNews, New York, Vol XLVII, U.S.A., 1948.

HOVDENAKK, Per. “Wifredo Lam y el expresionismo abstracto en Estados Unidos y Europa.” Sobre Wifredo Lam. Ponencias de la Conferencia Internacional I Bienal de Havana. Ed. Letras Cubanas, Havana, pp.129‑137, CUBA, 1986.*

IKUINNA. “Wifredo Lam 65 arung.” Svenska Dagbladet, Stockholm, SWEDEN, 1967.

_________. “En revolutionar pa Moderna Museet.” Dagens Nyether, Stockholm, SWEDEN, 1967.

ISIDRON DEL VALLE, Aldo. “Presencia de Lam en Sagua la Grande.” Granma, Havana, p.1, CUBA, May 29, 1984.*

JAGUER, Edouard. “Wifredo Lam.” Ciclón, Havana, Vol.1, No.2 [illus], pp.28‑31, CUBA, March, 1955.

_________. “Les Armes Miraculeuses de Wifredo Lam.” Art International, Lugano, SWITZERLAND, 1965.

JEAN, Marcel. “Les Quinzaines Heraldiques.” Almanac surrealiste du demi‑siècle, La Neuf (Special number), Paris, FRANCE, 1950.

JEWELL, Edward Alden. “A Cuban.” The New York Times, New York, U.S.A., 1942.

_________. “Lam.” The New York Times, New York, U.S.A., 1944.

_________. “Lam in the Permanent Collection of the Museum of Modern Art.” The New York Times, New York, U.S.A., 1945.

JOUFFROY, Alain. “Wifredo Lam, recherche de la signification absolue.” L’Art, Aix‑en‑Provence, FRANCE, 1963. _________. “La conquête de l’unité perdue.” Opus, Paris, No.26, FRANCE, June, 1971.

_________. Lam. Ed. Georges Fall, Paris, FRANCE, 1972.

_________. “Le Nouveau nouveau monde de Lam.” La Nuova Foglia. Pollenza‑ Macerata, ITALY, 1975.

_________. “Lettre de l’Inde.” Fin de Siècle, Paris, No.2, FRANCE, February, 1975.

JUAN, Adelaida de. “De hechura y de natura.” Revolución y Cultura, Havana, No.102 [illus], pp.41‑45, CUBA, February, 1981.*

_________. “Lam: Una silla en la jungla.” Sobre Wifredo Lam. Ponencias de la Conferencia Internacional I Bienal de La Habana. Ed. Letras Cubanas, Havana, pp.117‑128, CUBA, 1986.*

_________. “Der Stuhl im Dschungel.” Bildende Kunst, Berlin, No.4 [illus], pp.17-21, GERMANY, 1989.*

_________. “Sobre lo afrocubano en nuestra pintura.” Bohemia, Havana [illus], pp.16‑19, CUBA, [198‑].*

JUNE, Hubert. “Signes et rites de voudou.” Les Lettres Françaises, Paris, FRANCE, 1959.

_________. “Mythologies.” Cahiers du Musée de Poche, Paris, No.3, FRANCE, 1959.

_________. “Lam sans masque.” Galerie des Arts, Paris, FRANCE, 1968.

KEMPER RILEY, Maude. “A Rare June.” Gue, New York, U.S.A., 1944.

_________. “The Lord of Cuba.” The Arts Digest, New York, U.S.A., 1944.

KLEIN, William. “Het Platgeslagene laten ademen Wifredo Lam.” Vrij Nederlan, Amsterdam, HOLLAND, 1967.

KREMPEL, Ulrich. “Das Eigene und das Fremde.” cat. Wifredo Lam, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein‑Westfalen, Düsseldorf, pp.7‑12, F.R.G., July 2‑September 4, 1988.*

_________. “Le propre et l’étranger.” Wifredo Lam, Repires, Cahiers d’Art Contemporain, No.49, Galerie Lelong, Paris, FRANCE, 1988

KUENZI, Andre. “Wifredo Lam.” Gazette de Lausanne, Lausanne, SWITZERLAND, 1966.

LACOMBLEZ, Jacques. “Lam.” Edda, Brussels, No.2, BELGIUM, 1958.

LAM, Lou Lourin/GUEGEN, François. “España y Wifredo Lam: Un encuentro revelador.” cat. Wifredo Lam. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, pp.49‑54, SPAIN, September 29‑December 14, 1992.*

LAUDERMAN ORTIZ, Gladys. “El surrealismo de Wifredo Lam.” Viernes, Havana, CUBA, 1950.

_________. “Wifredo Lam. En Cuba.” Bohemia, Havana, CUBA, December 31, 1965.*

LEBEL, Robert. “Lam ou la récupération de l’exotisme.” Figure, Paris, No.9, FRANCE, 1961.

LECKINS, Ingemar. “Wifredo Lam.” cat. Wifredo Lam. Moderna Museet, Stockholm, SWEDEN, April 8‑May 7, 1967.*

LEIRIS, Michel. “Ecumes de La Havane.” Opus, Paris, No.7 [illus], FRANCE, June, 1968.

_________. cat. Wifredo Lam, peintures récentes, Villand & Galanis (Galerie) [illus], 30 pp., FRANCE, November 7‑December 3, 1968.*

_________. Wifredo Lam. Fratelli Fabri, Paris, FRANCE, 1970.

_________. “Wifredo Lam,” Paris, FRANCE, p.6, 1970.

_________. Wifredo Lam. Harry N. Abrahams Inc. Publishers, New York, U.S.A., 1970.*

LIMBOUR, George. “Donner à prendre.” Action, Paris, FRANCE, 1946.

LISCANO, Juan. “El arte de Wifredo Lam.” Latino América Libre, Havana, CUBA, 1955.

_________. “Wifredo Lam.” Sardio, Caracas, VENEZUELA, 1958.

LLANA, María Elena. “Encuentro con Lam.” Cuba Internacional, Havana [illus], pp.17‑23, CUBA, March, 1981.*

LOEB, Pierre. “Carta a Wifredo Lam.” Diario de la Marina, Havana, CUBA, 1944.

_________. “Voyage à travers la peinture. Peintres inspirés. Wifredo Lam.” Dole du Jura, Paris, Bordas, FRANCE, 1946.

_________. “La peinture et le temps présent.” Tropiques, Fort de France, No.12‑13, Martinique, FRANCE, 1946.

_________. cat. Lam. Oleos y aguafuertes. Sala Permanente. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA, January 17, 1966.*

LOPEZ, Ana Luisa. “Comparecieron ante el Tribunal 11 acusados.” Tribuna de Havana, Havana, p.4, CUBA, August 4, 1987.*

LOPEZ MORALES, Eduardo. “Congreso Cultural de La Habana.” [interview with Wifredo Lam], Juventud Rebelde, Havana, p.6, CUBA, 1968.*

LOPEZ‑NUSSA, Leonel (ELE‑NUSSA) (ALEJO BELTRAN). “Los dibujos de Wifredo Lam.” La Gaceta de Cuba, Havana, Vol. 2, No.11‑12, p.9, CUBA, January, 1963.*

_________. “Mi pintura es también socialista: dice Wifredo Lam.” Hoy, Havana, CUBA, May 11, 1963.*

_________. “«Hay que contar con el hombre». Lam [interview].” Granma, Havana [illus], p.7, CUBA, January 17, 1966.*

_________. “El signo Lam.” Bohemia, Havana, pp.25‑26, CUBA, December 24, 1982.*

_________. “Un Wifredo Lam desconocido.” Bohemia, Havana [illus], pp.11‑12, CUBA, February 13, 1987.*

_________. “Un Wifredo Lam desconocido.” Granma, Resumen Semanal, Havana, p.8, CUBA, March 1, 1987.*

LOPEZ OLIVA, Manuel. “El caso Lam.” Granma, Havana, CUBA, June 14, 1977.*

_________. “San Alejandro y Wifredo Lam (I).” Granma, Havana, CUBA, February 25, 1980.*

_________. “Patrimonio de todos.” Granma, Havana, CUBA, January 3/1983.*

_________. “Impronta cultural de Lam en nuestra vida.” Granma, Havana, CUBA, January 4, 1983.*

_________. “Albisola Mare en Wifredo Lam.” Granma. Resumen Semanal, Havana, p.7, CUBA, September 14, 1986.*

_________. “Lam: contextos y proyecciones.” Sobre Wifredo Lam. Ponencias de la Conferencia Internacional I Bienal de La Habana. Ed. Letras Cubanas, Havana, pp.63‑80, CUBA, 1986.*

LOWEMAN, Hilda. “The Man Behind the Canvases.” Harper’s Bazar, New York, U.S.A., 1945.

_________. “Wifredo Lam.” Harper’s Bazar, New York, U.S.A., 1949.

LOY, Ramón. “Exposiciones.” Boletín de la Comisión Nacional Cubana de la UNESCO, Havana, No.3‑6, [illus], p.34, CUBA, March, 1955.

MABILLE, Pierre. “La Manigua.” Cuadernos Americanos, Mexico City, [illus], pp.241‑256, MEXICO, July‑August, 1944.*

_________. “About People of Importance in Cuba.” Vogue, New York, U.S.A., 1945.

_________. “The Ritual Paintings of Wifredo Lam.” Magazine of Art, New York, Vol XLII, No.5, U.S.A., May, 1949.

_________. “Lam. La Jungla.” cat. Lam. Oleos y aguafuertes. Sala Permanente Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA, January 17, 1966.*

MANDIARGUES, André Pieyre de. “W. Lam.” XXéme Siécle, Paris, Panorama 74 [illus], pp.96‑101, FRANCE, [1974 ca.].

MAÑACH ROBATO, Jorge. “Wifredo Lam en el Parque Central.” Bohemia, Havana, No.42 [illus], pp.66,92, CUBA, October 15, 1950.

_________. “Los Murales de la ESSO.” Carteles, Havana, CUBA, April 22, 1951.

_________. “Dessins de Wifredo Lam.” Cahiers d’Art, Paris, No.11, FRANCE, 1952.

MARQUEZ RAVELO, Bernardo. “Un hombre lleno de amor.” El Caimán Barbudo, Havana, Ed. 224, Vol. 20, pp.10‑11, CUBA, July, 1986.*

_________. “Un hombre lleno de amor.” Granma, Resumen Semanal, Havana, CUBA, August 17, 1986.*

MARQUINA, Rafael. “Exposición Wifredo Lam.” Información, Havana, CUBA, 1946.

_________. “L’oeuvre de Wifredo Lam.” Les Lettres Françaises, Paris, FRANCE, 1946.

_________. “Le peintre cubain Wifredo Lam.” La Bataille, Paris, FRANCE, 1946.

MARRERO, P. “Wifredo Lam. Pintor de la inquietud.” La Nación, Santo Domingo, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, 1941.

MARTINEZ, Juan A. “Lam y sus contemporáneos.” Arte en Colombia, Bogota, No.57, [illus], pp.56‑58, COLOMBIA, January‑March, 1994.

_________. Cuban Art & National Identity. The Vanguardia Painters 1927-1950. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, [illus], pp.139-150/157-158, U.S.A., 1994.*

MAZARS, Pierre. “Totems et Tabous.” Le Figaro Littéraire, Paris, FRANCE, 1968.

MC BRIDE, Henry. “Wifredo Lam in the Matisse Gallery.” The New York Sun, New York, U.S.A., 1947.

MEDINA, Alvaro. “Lam. De Paris a Marsella y La Habana.” Arte Sur, Buenos Aires, Vol. 2, No.2, 1er.trimestre, ARGENTINA, 1985.

_________. “Lam y Changó.” Sobre Wifredo Lam. Ponencias de la Conferencia Internacional I Bienal de La Habana. Ed. Letras Cubanas, Havana, pp.26‑ 62, CUBA, 1986.*

MERESTER, Guy. “Ouvres récentes de Wifredo Lam, á la Galerie Maeght.” Art, Paris, FRANCE, 1953.

MEREWETHER, Charles. “At the Crossroads of Modernism: A Liminal Terrain.” cat. Wifredo Lam. A Retrospective of Works on Paper, Americas Society Art Gallery, U.S.A., September 18‑December 20, 1992.

_________. “En la encrucijada del modernismo: un terreno liminar.” Correo del Arte Hispano, Madrid, No.6 [illus], SPAIN. 1993.*

MICHELI, Mario de. “Wifredo Lam: Ucello dei Caraibi.” L’Unita, Milan, ITALY, 1960.

_________. “Lam.” L’Unita, Rome, ITALY, February 11, 1969.

_________. “Nelle ceramiche il mondo poetico di Lam.” L’Unità, Milan, ITALY, 1976.

MICHIELS, Ivo. Albisola Mare, Savona, Wifredo Lam. Ed. S.M. Ontwikkeling, Antwerp, BELGIUM, 1959.

MONIER, Jacques. “Wifredo Lam.” Nouvelle Revue de Laussane, Laussane, SWITZERLAND, 1962.

MORENO GALVAN, José María. “Wifredo Lam expone en Caracas.” Goya, Madrid, No.7, SPAIN, 1955.

_________. “El despertar del arte hispano‑americano. Wifredo Lam.” Plástica, Bogota, No.2, COLOMBIA, 1956.

_________. “La pintura de Wifredo Lam.” Goya, Madrid, No.26 [illus], pp.89‑93, SPAIN, September, 1958.*

MOSLEY, Charles. “«Paris» Wifredo Lam. Albert Loeb.” ArtNews, New York, U.S.A., January, 1988.*

MOSQUERA FERNANDEZ, Gerardo. “Mi pintura es un acto de descolonización.” Bohemia, Havana, [illus], pp.10‑13, CUBA, June 20, 1980.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam opina y recuerda.” Opina, Havana, No.10, pp.23‑25, CUBA, June, 1980.*

_________. “Mi pintura es un acto de descolonización. Entrevista con Wifredo Lam.” Exploraciones en la plástica cubana, Ed. Letras Cubanas, Havana, Col. Espiral, pp.179‑190, CUBA, 1983.*

_________. “Modernidad y africanía.” cat. Wifredo Lam. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, pp.21‑41, SPAIN, September 29‑December 14, 1992.*

_________. “Africa dentro de la plástica cubana.” Loquevenga, Havana, Vol. 2, No.1 [illus], pp.43‑46, CUBA, 1995.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam.” Art Nexus, Bogota, No.15, [illus], pp.72-79, COLOMBIA, January-March, 1995.

MOTHERWELL, Robert/REINHARDT, Ad/KAPPEL, Bernard (ed.). Modern Artists in America, New York, Vol.I, U.S.A., 1952.

MUNAVI, Carlo. cat. Wifredo Lam. Pastelli, Centro di Grafica Levi, Milan, ITALY, March 11‑30, 1970.*

NADEAU, Maurice. cat. Wifredo Lam, Palais des Beaux Arts, Brussels [introduction] [illus], 32 pp., BELGIUM, May 18‑June 18, 1967.

NAVARRETE, Sylvia. “Wifredo Lam y los surrealistas.” cat. Wifredo Lam, obra sobre papel, Centro Cultural/Arte Contemporáneo, A.C., Mexico City, pp.45‑48, MEXICO, June‑October, 1992.*

NAVARRO, Desiderio. “Lam y Guillén: mundos comunicantes.” Sobre Wifredo Lam. Ponencias de la Conferencia Internacional I Bienal de La Habana. Ed. Letras Cubanas, Havana, pp.138‑163, CUBA, 1986.*

NEUMANN, Richard. “El surrealismo y el mundo real.” El Siglo, Havana, CUBA, 1946.

_________. “Dos Filosofías‑Romañach y Lam.” Diario de la Marina, Havana, CUBA, 1949.

NICOLE. cat. Obra reciente. Centro de Bellas Artes, Maracaibo, VENEZUELA, February 24, 1957.*

NOCE, Averardo della. “Il break di Lam.” Il Sole, ITALY, Aprile 17, 1975.

_________. “Wifredo Lam.” Corrieri della Sera, Milan, ITALY, Aprile 27, 1975.

NOCEDA FERNANDEZ, José Manuel. “Las colecciones de Wifredo Lam.” Juventud Rebelde, Havana, p.6, CUBA, December 21, 1987.*

_________. “Un catálogo para Lam.” Revolución y Cultura, Havana, pp.73‑74,

CUBA, [1987].*

_________. Evocación múltiple de Wifredo Lam, Havana, CUBA, 1989 [unpublished].

_________. “La jungla en la cumbre. La consagración de un pintor.” Revolución y Cultura, Havana, Vol. 32, Period V, No.5 [illus], pp.33‑39, CUBA, September-October, 1993.*

_________. Wifredo Lam en las colecciones cubanas. Havana, 1993 [unpublished catalogue].

_________. “La huella de Haití en Wifredo Lam.” II Encuentro Internacional sobre Arte Contemporáneo, Centro Wifredo Lam, Havana, CUBA, December, 1995.

_________. “La seducción del grabado.” cat. La seducción del grabado, Centro Wifredo Lam, Havana, CUBA, May-June, 1996.

_________. “Wifredo Lam de la academia a la vanguardia.” Arte Cubano, Havana, No.1 [illus], pp.22-27, CUBA, 1997.*

_________/COBAS AMATE, Roberto. “Wifredo Lam desconocido.” cat. Wifredo Lam Desconocido, Cuarta Bienal de La Habana, Galería Latinoamericana, Casa de las Américas, Havana, CUBA, November, 1991.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam desconocido.” cat. Cuarta Bienal de La Habana, Centro Wifredo Lam, Editorial Letras Cubanas, Havana [illus], pp.155‑160, CUBA, November, 1991.*

NOTON, Malbille. “Attraction in the Galleries «La femme sable».” The New York Sun, New York, U.S.A., 1942.

NUÑEZ JIMENEZ, Antonio. “Wifredo Lam: «Yo hubiera querido venir a Cuba con un fusil».” Granma, Resumen Semanal, Havana, Vol. 15, No.21 [illus], p.10, CUBA, May 15, 1980.*

_________. Wifredo Lam. Ed. Letras Cubanas Havana, 280 pp., CUBA, 1982.*

_________. “Lam habla de Fidel.” Bohemia, Havana [illus], pp.44‑45, CUBA, May 14, 1982.*

_________. “Encuentro con Picasso.” Bohemia, Havana [illus], pp.14‑21, CUBA, May 21, 1982.*

_________. “Retorno a la isla.” Bohemia, Havana [illus], pp.14‑19, CUBA, May 28, 1982.*

_________. “Génesis de la jungla.” Bohemia, Havana, pp.16‑19, CUBA, June 4, 1982.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam: De lo cubano a lo universal.” Granma, Havana, CUBA, September 14, 1982.*

_________. Wifredo Lam. Ed. Raduga, Moscow [Russian edition], U.S.S.R., 1985.

ORAMAS, Ada. “Lo real maravilloso en Lam.” Viernes de Tribuna, Havana, CUBA, August 10, 1984.*

_________. “De Lam los cuadros robados.” Tribuna de La Habana, Havana, CUBA, January 18, 1987.*

_________. “Preparan catálogo razonado sobre Lam.” Tribuna de La Habana, Havana, CUBA, September 13, 1987.*

ORTIZ, Fernando. Wifredo Lam y su obra vista a través de significados artísticos. Publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación, Dirección de Cultura, Havana, Book 1, Cuadernos de Arte 1 [illus], not paginated, CUBA, 1950.*

_________. “Las visiones de Lam.” La Gaceta de Cuba, Havana, No.18 [fragments] [illus], pp.2‑3, CUBA, May 18, 1963.*

_________. cat. Lam. Oleos y aguafuertes. Sala Permanente. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA, January 17, 1966.*

_________. “Las visiones de Lam.” Revolución y Cultura, Havana, No.120 [illus], pp.52‑62, CUBA, 1982.*

OTERO, Lisandro. “(Wifredo Lam. Pintor de tres mundos).” América Latina (Spanish), Moscow, No.2 [illus], pp.71‑79, U.S.S.R., 1985.*

OZENFANT, Amédée. “Lam.” France‑Amerique, New York, No.CCX, U.S.A., 1950.

PADILLA, Heberto. “Wifredo Lam exposición en el Pabellón de Ciencias Sociales.” Pueblo, Havana, CUBA, 1955.

PAGLIER, Sergio. “Lam (il selvaggio).” Il Secolo XX, Genova, ITALY, November, 1975.

PASALODOS, Lourdes. “Apuntes para un retrato.” El Caimán Barbudo, Havana, No. 239, pp.20‑21, CUBA, October, 1987.*

PELAEZ, Rosa Elvira. “Con Wifredo Lam. «Yo no pienso en los días que dejo atrás…».” Granma, Havana, CUBA, June 18, 1977.*

PEÑALVER MORAL, Reinaldo. “¿Cómo tú crees que podía faltar?” Bohemia, Havana, CUBA, 1980.*

PEREIRA, Manuel. “Lam. El hijo del Caribe.” El Caimán Barbudo, Havana, pp.16‑17/25, CUBA, July, 1977.*

_________. “Un minuto con Lam.” Signos, Las Villas, No.21 [illus], pp.311‑315, CUBA, January‑December, 1978.*

_________. “Lam del Caribe.” Cuba Internacional, Havana [illus], pp.28‑33, CUBA, February, 1978.*

_________. “La jungla en Paris.” Bohemia, Havana [illus], pp.30‑31, CUBA, May 18, 1979.*

PERET, Benjamín. “Communication Surréaliste.” Medium, Paris, No.4, FRANCE, 1955.

_________. cat. 36a. Biennale, Venezia, Istituto Italo‑Latinoamericano, Rome, [illus], ITALY, June-October, 1972.

PEREZ BETANCOURT, Rolando. “Wifredo Lam.” Granma, Havana, CUBA, September 18, 1982.*

PERMANYER, Luis. “Bienvenido a casa, Lam.” El País, Madrid, SPAIN, 1976.

PIERRAT, Alfredo G. “Visitó Hart la casa donde vivió Wifredo Lam en París.” Granma, Havana, CUBA, March 23, 1983.*

PIERRE, José. “L’Humanisme Magique de Wifredo Lam.” XX éme. Siécle, Paris, No.29 [illus], FRANCE, December, 1967.

_________. “La Trente‑sixiéme Biennale de Venice.” L’Oeil, Paris [illus], FRANCE, June‑July, 1972.

PINEDA, Rafael. “Las mujeres lunares.” El Nacional, Caracas, VENEZUELA, 1949.

_________. “Wifredo Lam le sabbat.” Les Lettres Francaises, Paris, FRANCE, 1953.

PINETTA, Antonio M. “Wifredo Lam.” Arte Mercato, No.5, ITALY, 1973.

_________. “A la frontiera dell’universo. Wifredo Lam.” Panorama, Milan, No.16, ITALY, 1974.

_________. “Entretien avec Wifredo Lam.” Bolaffiarte, No.39, FRANCE, March, 1974.

PIÑERA, Toni. “Huellas desconocidas de Lam.” Granma, Havana, Vol. 27, CUBA, December 28, 1991.*

_________. “A Wifredo Lam lo protege su pueblo.” Granma, Havana, p.6, CUBA, July 17, 1992.*

PLUCHART, François. “Les Dechirements de Wifredo Lam.” Combat, Paris, FRANCE, 1967.

POGOLOTTI, Graziella. “Materia y memoria.” Sobre Wifredo Lam. Ponencias de la Conferencia Internacional I Bienal de La Habana. Ed. Letras Cubanas, Havana, pp.7‑25, CUBA, 1986.*

_________. “Die Geschichte eines Stuhls «Silla» von Wifredo Lam (1943).” cat. Wifredo Lam, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein‑Westfalen, Düsseldorf, pp.19‑22, F.R.G., July 2‑September 4, 1988.*

POGOLOTTI, Marcelo. “Wifredo Lam en el Parque.” El Mundo, Havana, p.A8, CUBA, October 7, 1950.

PORRO, Ricardo. cat. Wifredo Lam. Aguafuertes. Biblioteca Nacional José Martí, Havana, CUBA, May 13‑June 13, 1963.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam.” Revolution and/et Culture, Havana, No.4, pp.46‑48, CUBA, [196‑].*

PORZIO, Domenico. Wifredo Lam. Opere scelte. Ed. Galleria Nuovo Saggitario, Milan, ITALY, 1975.

_________. “Il testoro della jungla.” Epoca, Milan, No.13, December, 1975.

PRIETO, Miriam. “Wifredo Lam: artista y combatiente revolucionario.” Tribuna de La Habana, Havana, CUBA, September 11, 1987.*

QUINTANA CASTILLO, Manuel. “Wifredo Lam pintor de América.” Integral, Caracas, VENEZUELA, 1957.

RAYMOR, Vivien. “New York Exhibitions in the Galleries.” Arts Magazine, New York, XXXVII, U.S.A., 1963.

REY, Jean-Dominique. “Le tour des expositions.” Jardin des Arts, Paris, No.170, FRANCE, 1969.

REY, Stephane. “Wifredo Lam.” Le Phare‑Dimanche, Brussels, BELGIUM, 1969.

RICHARD HERNANDEZ, Marie Thérèse. “La filiation yoruba dans la peinture de Wifredo Lam.” [unpublished article] Paris [illus], 15 pp., FRANCE., 1994.*

RIOS, Alejandro. “Cuando presta su mundo a otro lenguaje artístico.” Granma, Resumen Semanal, Havana, CUBA, June 7, 1981.*

_________. “Wifredo Lam y la ilustración para libros.” Lea, Revista del Libro Cubano, Havana, pp.7‑10, CUBA, [198‑].*

RIVERON, Enrique. “¿Cúál es la verdadera anécdota de W. Lam?” El Miami Herald, Miami, Florida, U.S.A., September 22, 1982.*

ROBERTSON, Jack. Twentieth‑Century Artists on Art. An Index to Artists’ Writings, Statements and Interviews. G.K.Hall & CO., Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1985.

RODRIGUEZ SOSA, Fernando. “Lam: como un laberinto.” Revolución y Cultura, Havana, No.102 [illus], pp.46‑51, CUBA, February, 1981.*

ROTA, Ornella. “Al Museum of Modern Art:: Lam, Picasso.” Il Lavoro, Turin, ITALY, 1968.

ROUSSEAU, Madeleine. “Wifredo Lam, peintre cubain.” Présence Africaine, Paris‑Dakar, FRANCE, 1948.

SALA, Alberico. “Tutto il mondo in Wifredo Lam.” Il Giorno, Milan, ITALY, May 14, 1975.

SALADO, Minerva. “Wifredo Lam.” Cuba Internacional, Havana, Vol. 14, No.156 [illus], pp.4-5, CUBA, November, 1982.

SANCHEZ, Juan. “Mi pintura es un manifiesto plástico del Tercer Mundo. Entrevista con Wifredo Lam.” Bohemia, Havana, pp.28‑31, CUBA, June 24, 1977.*

_________. “Lam sin tramonto.” Bohemia, Havana, pp.25, CUBA, June 17, 1977.*

_________. “El artista adolescente. Lam antes de Lam.” Bohemia, Havana [illus], pp.5‑7, CUBA, August 4, 1989.*

_________. “Lam en China.” Bohemia, Havana [illus], pp.57-58, CUBA, May 1, 1992.*

_________. “Lam, salvaje y cartesiano.” Bohemia, Havana, pp.B4‑B7, CUBA, August 28, 1992.*

SANCHEZ VAZQUEZ, Adolfo. “Mundo y lenguaje en Lam.” Sobre Wifredo Lam. Ponencias de la Conferencia Internacional I Bienal de La Habana. Ed. Letras Cubanas, Havana, pp.164‑177, CUBA, 1986.*

SANTOS MORAY, Mercedes. “Ser pintor es un oficio.” Alma Mater, Havana, pp.44‑45, CUBA, February, 1980.*

SANTREAU, Serge. “La nourriture des seigneurs et le grain des métamorphoses [préface].” cat. Wifredo Lam. Galerie Lelong, Paris, col. repéres, No.33, FRANCE, 1990.

_________. “Wifredo Lam.” Cahiers d’Art Contemporain, Paris, No.63, FRANCE, [19‑ ].

SARDUY, Severo. “Wifredo Lam.” cat. Wifredo Lam, obra sobre papel, Centro Cultural Arte Contemporáneo, A.C., Mexico City, pp.27‑30, MEXICO, June‑October, 1992.*

_________. “Páginas rescatadas.” Bohemia, Havana, Vol. 87, No.16, pp.57-58, CUBA, August 4, 1995.

SARUSKY, Jaime. “Lam. Cubanía y universalidad.” Bohemia, Havana, No.21 [illus], pp.14‑19, CUBA, May 25, 1984.*

SCHMIED, Wielan. Wifredo Lam. Ed. Im Erker, Saint Gall, SWITZERLAND, 1976.

_________. “Nicht hinschauen, das ist der Teufel!.” Merian. Kuba, Hamburg [illus], pp.85‑92, F.R.G., July 7, 1990. SIGNIRINI, Oscar. “La pintura de Wifredo Lam.” D’Arts, Milan, ITALY, 1964.

_________. “Alain Jouffroy.” D’Ars, Milan, ITALY, 1969.

SILVA YERO, Carlos. “Inauguran en Madrid primera exposición antológica del pintor Wifredo Lam.” Granma, Havana, CUBA, October 26, 1982.*

SIMS, Lowery. “Wifredo Lam: Surrealismo del Nuevo Mundo.” Sobre Wifredo Lam. Ponencias de la Conferencia Internacional I Bienal de La Habana.Editorial Letras Cubanas, Havana, pp.99‑116, CUBA, 1986.*

_________. “El Dadá en Nueva York y el Surrealismo en el mundo.” cat. El espíritu latinoamericano: Arte y artistas en los Estados Unidos. 1920‑1970, The Bronx Museum of Art, New York [illus], pp.167‑170, U.S.A., September 29/1988‑January 29/1989.*

_________. “In Search of Wifredo Lam.” Arts Magazine, New York, p.51, December, 1988.

_________. “Wifredo Lam. Las décadas del 60 y 70.” cat. Wifredo Lam, obras desde 1938 hasta 1975. De regreso al Caribe. Arsenal de la Puntilla, San Juan, PUERTO RICO, February 14‑April 30, 1992.*

SODERBERG, Lasse. “Wifredo Lam.” cat. Wifredo Lam, Moderna Musset, Stockholm, SWEDEN, April 8‑May 7, 1967.*

_________. “Le papillon philosophique de Wifredo Lam.” XXe. Siécle, Paris, Panorama 75, No.44 [illus], pp.52‑59, FRANCE, June, 1975.

SOUPAULT, Philippe. “Préface.” Wifredo Lam. Dessins, Editions Galilée. Dutrou, Paris, FRANCE, 1975.*

_________. “Drawings.” cat. Wifredo Lam, obra sobre papel, Centro Cultural Arte Contemporáneo, A.C., Mexico City, pp.36‑38, MEXICO, June‑October, 1992.*

STERNE, Daniel. “Wifredo Lam.” Program D 47, Prague, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1947.

SUPPINI, César. “Algo sobre Wifredo Lam.” Nuestro Tiempo, Havana, Vol. II, No.6 [illus], p.11, CUBA, July, 1955.*

SURI MESADA, Emilio. “El caso óleo.” Juventud Rebelde, Havana, CUBA, December 30, 1986.*

SWEENEY, James Johnson. “Wifredo Lam,” Urbana, Illinois, p.61, U.S.A.,1961.

TAILLANDIER, Yvon. Wifredo Lam. Dessins. Ed. Denoël, Paris, FRANCE., 1965.

_________. “Le dessin, la mort et le diable.” L’Art Vivant, Paris, No.10, FRANCE, April, 1970.

TARNAUD, Claude. “Wifredo Lam et le bestiaire ambigu.” XXéme. Siécle, Paris, No.21, FRANCE, 1963.

TEIGE, Karel. “Mexinar odni surrealismus.” Prague, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1947.

THEE, Pierre. “Au long des cimaises.” Journal de Geneve, SWITZERLAND, 1962.

THEOPHILE, Charles. “Wifredo Lam. Peintures et dessins.” “Marianne,” Paris, FRANCE, 1939

TIMOSSI, Jorge. Un perfume para Lam. El caso óleo. Ed. Letras Cubanas, Havana, 142 pp., CUBA, 1988.

T.O.C. “Wifredo Lam. Pictures on Exhibit,” New York, U.S.A., 1939.

TORHAMN, Urban. “VI Fragade Castro om Konst och revolution.” Idun Vecko journalen, Stockholm, SWEDEN, 1967.

TORRIENTE, Loló de la. “Sueño y poesía. Wifredo Lam.” Bohemia, Havana [illus], pp.18‑21, CUBA, October 26, 1962.*

TORRUELLA LEVAL, Susana. “Wifredo Lam. Dancing in the Dark.” ArtNews, New York, Vol. 93, No.6, Summer [illus], p.153, U.S.A., 1994.

TRABA, Marta. “Wifredo Lam.” cat. Art of the Fantastic: Latin America 1920‑1987, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, Indiana [illus], pp.218‑219, U.S.A., June 28‑September 13, 1987.*

TRENAS, Miguel Angel. “Wifredo Lam. La magia del mestizaje.” El Médico, Madrid, pp.82‑84, SPAIN, 1982.*

TROTTA, Geri. “Wifredo Lam Paints a Picture.” ArtNews, New York [illus], pp.41-44, U.S.A., September, 1950.*

VALSECCHI, Marco. cat. Lam: dipinti, pastelli, acqueforti. Galleria L’Annunciata, Milan, ITALY, November 3‑18, 1962.*

_________. “Il cubano de Parigi.” Il Giorno, Milan, ITALY, May 26, 1970.

_________. “Wifredo Lam a la Biennale di Venezia.” Gazetta di Parma, Parma, ITALY, July 6, 1972.

VARELA, Blanca. “Wifredo Lam, pintor.” El Mundo, Lima, PERU, 1954.

VEIGAS ZAMORA, José. “Lam: una sola y definitiva ruptura.” Revolución y Cultura, Havana, No.55, pp.2‑3, CUBA, March, 1977.*

VERDECIA, Carlos. “Muere en Paris pintor cubano Wifredo Lam.” El Miami Herald, Miami, Florida, pp.5, U.S.A., September 12, 1982.*

VIALE FERRERO, Mercedes. Servizi in porcellana. Edizione d’Arte Fratelli Pozzo, Turin, ITALY, 1970.

VICENTE, Lorenzo. “Incontro con Wifredo Lam.” Oggi, Milan, No.25, ITALY, July, 1972.

_________. “Dipingo la donna dei miei sogni.” Oggi, Milan, No.39, ITALY, 1973.

VIDAL, Virginia. “Wifredo Lam: «una pintura es también un acto político».” Araucaria de Chile, Madrid, No.25, pp.111‑115, SPAIN, 1984.

VIDAL FERNANDEZ, Manuel. “Mitología de Lam y el Lam de la mitología.” La Gaceta de Cuba, Havana, Vol. 2, No.11‑12, Havana, p.9, CUBA, January, 1963.*

VILLARES, Ricardo. “Lam en su selva.” Bohemia, Havana, pp.48‑49, CUBA, June 2, 1978.*

VREE, Howard de. “Artists on Destiny.” The New York Times, New York, U.S.A., 1947.

_________. “Exotic.” The New York Times, New York, U.S.A., 1949.

VRINAT, Robert. “Wifredo Lam.” Jeune Afrique, Paris, FRANCE, 1967.

WALDBERG, Patrick. “Wifredo Lam et les idoles crépusculaires.” Quadrum, Brussels, No.3, BELGIUM, 1957.

WOLF, Ben. “Wizards and Warriors.” The Art Digest, New York, U.S.A., 1947.

XURIGUERA, Gérard. Wifredo Lam. Ed. Filipacchi, Paris [illus], 70 pp., FRANCE, 1974.*

ZERVOS, Christian. “Les expositions Wifredo Lam.” Paris, FRANCE, 1953.

_________. “Dessins de Wifredo Lam.” Cahiers d’Art, Paris, No.XXXI‑XXXII, FRANCE, 1956.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Ciclón, Vol.1, No.2, March, 1955, Havana, CUBA (drawings).

Cuba-Colombia. Raíces Comunes. Ed. Corporación Prográfica, [6 Cuban artists-6 Colombian artists; edition of 100 copies, signed and numbered by the artists]; prologue by Nicolás Guillén, 1978, Cali, COLOMBIA (silk-screens).

Estudios. Mensuario de Cultura, February, 1950, Havana, CUBA (cover).

Le feu vert. Studio Forum. Ed. Zagreb, 1974, Zagreb, YUGOSLAVIA (6 lithographs).

Gaceta del Caribe [Vol. 1, No.5, July, 1944/Vol. 6, August, 1944], Havana, CUBA (drawings).

La Ilustración Castellana, 1927, Cuenca, SPAIN (illustrations).

Lam. Images. [edition in charge of Carlo Grossetti/Sergio Rusconi. Giorgio Upiglio, printer. 50 copies numbered and signed by the authors] Salone Annunciata Editore, 1962, Book 1, not paginated, Milan, ITALY (16 original etchings in color on zinc plate).

Orígenes [Vol. 2, No.5, Spring, 1945/Vol. 4, No.16, Winter, 1947/Vol. 9, No.30, 1952], Havana, CUBA (covers).

La Voz Regional, 1936, Madrid, SPAIN (illustrations).

Pintura contemporánea. Colección Arte Cubano, Serie I, Ed. Boletín de la Comisión Nacional Cubana de la UNESCO [postcards], [1961 ca.], Havana, CUBA (reproduction).

Pleniluna. [text by Ragnar von Holten, poem by José Pierre], 1974, Stockholm, SWEDEN (10 lithographs).

ALVAREZ BARAGAÑO, José. El amor original. Ed. Castor, col. Castor, 1955, 100 pp. Havana, CUBA (drawings).

ARTAUD, Antonin. Le théatre et les dieux. Ed. Aubry‑Rueff, 1966, Paris, FRANCE (5 etchings in color).

BOGGIA, Pieter. Pandemonium. Poem by Joyce Mansour. La Nuova Foglia Editrice. Pollenza‑Macerata, 1975, Milan, ITALY (6 original lithographs).

BRETON, André. Fata Morgana. 1940, Paris, FRANCE (6 drawings in India ink).

CASSOU, Jean. Chile, 11 September, 11 Latino‑américains, 11 serigraphies. Ed. Comité FRANCE‑Amerique Latine, 1973, Paris, FRANCE (silk-screens).

CESAIRE, Aimé. Retour au pays natal. Ed. C.T. Poétique, [Preface by Benjamin Peret], FRANCE (ink drawings).

CHAR, René. Le rempart de Brindilles. Ed. Louis Broder, 1963, Paris, FRANCE (original drawing).

CREVEL, René. Feuilles éparses. Ed. Louis Broder, 1963, Paris, FRANCE (original drawing).

FOURCADE, Dominique. Lessive du loup. Ed. Imprimeur & Editeur, 1966, Paris, FRANCE (original etching).

FRANQUI, Carlos. Tintas. Ed. Giorgio Upiglio, 1970, Milan, ITALY.

GARCIA MARQUEZ, Gabriel. El último viaje del buque fantasma. Ed. Poligrafa, 1976, Barcelona, SPAIN (lithographs).

GHERASIM, Luca. Apostrophe Apocalypse. Ed. Giorgio Upiglio, 1966, Milan, ITALY (14 original etchings).

GLISSANT, Eduard. La terre inquiete. Ed. Galerie du Dragon, 1955, Paris, FRANCE (4 lithographs).

GUEZET, Christian. Jean Joubert. Poéme de Dominique Agostini, Le regard vertical. Ed. Lamata‑Agori, 1973, Paris, FRANCE (6 lithographs).

JOUFFROY, Alain. L’antichambre de la nature. Ed. Paroles Peintes, 1966, Paris, FRANCE (9 original etchings).

JUIN, Hubert. Le voyage de l’arbre. Ed. Pierre‑Jean Oswald, 1960, Paris, FRANCE (5 drawings in India ink).

LLINAS DE SANTA CRUZ. Poemas. 1956, Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA (drawings in India ink).

LUCA, Gherasim. L’extreme occidentale. Ed. Meyer, 1961, Lausanne, SWITZERLAND (etchings).

MABILLE, Pierre. Le miroir de merveilleux. Ed. de Minuit, 1962 [Preface by Andre Breton], Paris, FRANCE (etchings).

MANDIARGUES, André Pieyre de. Croiseur noir. Ed. Paroles Peintes, 1972, Paris, FRANCE (etchings).

MATTA, Roberto. Dorothea Tanning. Ed. Galerie Diderot, 1959, Paris, FRANCE.

TARNAUD, Claude. La rose et la cetoine, la nacre et la noir. Ed. Reconnaissance, 1958, Paris, FRANCE (original etching).

VALORBE, Francois. Carte noir. Ed. Arcade, 1953, Paris, FRANCE.

FILMOGRAPHY

1973 Swedish radio and television, documentary film, color, 30’, SWEDEN.

1974 MUSAA, Italo. [Wifredo Lam], short color film, 30’, Milan, ITALY.

1975 Swiss-Italian Television, reportage on Albisola Mare, ITALY.

1979 SOLAS, Humberto. “Wifredo Lam,” documentary film, color, ICAIC, Havana, CUBA.

PRINCIPAL COLLECTIONS

Albert Loeb [private collection], Paris, FRANCE.

Artcurial, Paris, FRANCE.

Cabinet des Estampes. Bibliothèque National, Paris, FRANCE.

Casa de las Américas, Havana, CUBA.

Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, FRANCE.

Centro Wifredo Lam, Havana, CUBA.

Fundation Sonja Henie e Niels Onstad, Oslo, NORWAY.

Graham Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Howard University Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Institute of Art, Yale University, U.S.A.

Institute of Modern Art, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Instituto de Arte, Lima, PERU.

Instituto de Artes Gráficas de Oaxaca, Oaxaca, MEXICO.

John Herron Art Museum, Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A.

Kunstverein, Hamburg, GERMANY.

Lou Lam [private collection], Paris, FRANCE.

Lowe Art Museum, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, U.S.A.

Moderna Museet, Stockholm, SWEDEN.

Musée d’Art Contemporain, Skopje, YUGOSLAVIA.

Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, FRANCE.

Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, FRANCE.

Museo Bacardí, Santiago de Cuba, CUBA.

Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Rufino Tamayo, Mexico City, MEXICO.

Museo de Arte Moderno La Tertulia, Cali, COLOMBIA.

Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, VENEZUELA.

Museo de Santiago, Santiago de Chile, CHILE.

Museo de Warsaw, Warsaw, POLAND.

Museo José Luis Cuevas, Mexico City, MEXICO.

Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, SPAIN.

Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, CUBA.

Museum Boymans van Beuningen, Rotterdam, HOLLAND.

Museum of Baltimore, Baltimore, U.S.A.

Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA), Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.

Museum of Modern Art of Latin America, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Museum Stedelijk van Abbe, Eindhoven, HOLLAND.

Museum XX Jahrhunderts Schweizergarten, Vienna, AUSTRIA.

National Galerie, Berlin, GERMANY.

Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum, Hannover, GERMANY.

Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A.

Silkeborg Museum, DENMARK.

Skandinaviska Museet, Malmo, SWEDEN.

Southeast Collection Gallery, Miami’s Southeast Bank, Coral Gables, Florida, U.S.A.

The Nelson A. Rockefeller Collection, New York, U.S.A.

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, U.S.A.

Tate Gallery, London, U.K.

PUBLIC WORKS

Mural, 1951

5,50 x 2,40 m.; ESSO Building, (7th floor), Vedado, Havana, CUBA.

Mural, [195‑]

Mosaics; Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, VENEZUELA.

Mural, [195‑]

Mosaics; Edificio Seguro Médico, Havana, CUBA.

Biography photo: Wilfredo Lam official website

Wifredo Lam

Wifredo Lam

Sagua La Grande, Las Villas, Cuba 1902 - 1982

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